Trilingual Weidner God List (Ugarit)

Category: Frameworks > Canaanite Polytheism > Phoenician Gods

1 Introduction

[Ugaritica 5, 137 – supplementation – ‚missing‘ lines – tablets / columns + numbering – paper ; authorship ; page for main list; link]

2 Text and translation

Sumerian / Akkadian : Hurrian : Ugaritic

(I.1) An (ᵈan, m.) = Ani (a-ni) = Šamūma (ša-mu-ma)
(2) Antu (an-tu, f.) = wife of Ani (aš-te a-ni-wi) = Tahāmatu (ta-a-ma-tu₄)
(3) Enlil (ᵈen-lil₂, m.) = Kumarbi (ku-mur-wi) = ˀIlu (DINGIR.lu₄)
(4) Ninlil (ᵈnin-lil₂, f.) = wife of Kumarbi (aš-te ku-mur-wi-ni-wi) = ˀAthiratu (a-ši-ra-tu₄)
(5) Nuska (ᵈnuska, m.) = [fragmentary] = [lost]
(6) Sadarnunanna (ᵈsa-dar₃-nun-an-na) = [fragmentary] = [lost]
(7) Gibil (ᵈBIL.GI, m.) = [lost] = [lost]
(8) Lisi (ᵈli₉-si₄, f.) = [lost] = [lost]
(9–11 omitted)
(12) Ningalla (ᵈnin-gal-la, f.) = [lost] = [lost]
(13) Alammuš (ᵈalamuš, m.) =Aya[kun] (a-ia-[ku-un]) = [lost]
(14) Ningublaga (ᵈnin-gublaga, m.) = Allan (al-la-an, f.!) = [lost]
(15) Amaraḫēa (or Amaraḫeˀea, ᵈama-re-ḫe₂-e₃-a, f.) = Amarḫe (a-ma-ar-ḫe₂) = [lost]
(16) Amarāzu (or Amaraˀazu, ᵈama-ra-a-zu, f.) = Amarazu (a-ma-ar-a-zu) = [lost]
(17) Innin (ᵈinnin, f.) = Šauška (ša-uš-ka) = [lost]
(18) Dumuzi (ᵈdumu-zid, m.) = Dumuzi (du-mu-zi) = [lost]
(19) Ninšubur (ᵈnin-šubur, f.) = [lost] = [lost]
(20) Nanāya (ᵈna-na-a, f.) = [lost] = [lost]
(21) Bizila (ᵈbi₂-zil-la₂, f.) = [fragmentary] = [lost]
(22) Kanisurra (ᵈka-ni-sur-ra, f.) = Kanizuran (ka-ni-zu-ra-an) = Lēlu ()
(23) Lulal (ᵈlu₂-lal₃, m.) = Lulaḫe (lu-la-aḫ-ḫe₂) = Lula… (lu-la-[…])
(24) Lātarāk (ᵈla-ta-ra-ak, m.) = Šarrani (ša-ar-ra-a-ni) = [fragmentary]
(25) parakku (ᵈBARAG, m.) = ḫamarre (ḫa-ma-ar-ri) = qidšu (? qi-id[?]-[šu?])

(II.1) Tišpak (ᵈtišpak, m.) = Milkunni (mi-il-ku-un-ni) = Gatharu (ga-ša-ru)
(2) Ninazu (ᵈnin-a-zu, m.) = Širuḫi (ši-ru-ḫi) = [fragmentary]
(3a) ᵈUTU (m.) = Tu’enni (tu-en-ni) = Yōmu (ya-mu)
(3b) Utu (ᵈUTU, m.) = Šimige (ši-mi-gi) = Šapšu (ša-ap-šu)
(4) Ea (ᵈe₄-a, m.) = Eyan (e-ia-an) = Kôtharu (ku-šar-ru)
(5–7 omitted)
(8) Ninegal (ᵈnin-e₂-al, f.) = Peldigalli […] = [fragmentary]
(9) Lagamal (ᵈla-ga-ma-al, m.) = [lost] = [fragmentary]
(10) Zababa (ᵈza-ba₄-ba₄, m.) = [lost] = [fragmentary]
(11) Ilba (ᵈMAL, m.) = Ḫudena (ḫu-ti-na, f.!) = [fragmentary]
(11b) Zababa (ᵈza-ba₄-ba₄, m.) = Ḫudellurra (ḫu-ti-il-lu-ur-ra, f.!) = Kōtharatu (ku-ša-ra-tu₄, f.!)
(12) Papsukkal (ᵈpap-sukkal, m.) = Tatmiš (ta-at-mi-iš, f.!) = Dadmišu (da-ad-mi-šu, f.!)
(13) Ningirsu (ᵈnin-gir₂-su, m.) = Ninuwaḫe (ni-nu-wa-a-ḫe) = Ninuwa (… ni-nu-wa)
(14) Saŋkud (ᵈsag-kud, m.) = Milkun (mi-il-ku-un) = Gatharu (ga-ša-ru)
(15) Mesagunu (mes-sag-unuᵏⁱ, f.) = Anatu (a-na-tu₄) = ˤAnatu (a-na-tu₄)
(16) Babu (ᵈba-u, f.) = Milkun (mi-il-ku-un, m.!) = Gatharu (ga-ša-ru, m.!)
(17) Lugalbanda (ᵈlugal-ban₃-da, m.) = Šimige (ši-mi-gi) = Šapšu (ša-ap-šu)
(18) Ninsun (nin-sun₂, f.) = Ayakun (a-ia-ku-un) = Ayyakku (a-ia-ku)
(19) Lugalmarada (lugal-[…]-da, m.) = Aštabin/-ini (aš-ta-bi-[…]) = ˤAthtaru (aš-ta-ru)
(20) Imzuˀanna (im-zu-an-na, f.) = Teššab (te-eš-ša-ab, m.!) = Baˤlu (ba-a-lu, m.!)
(21) Šuziˀanna (ᵈšu-zi-an-na, f.) = Tatmiš (ta-at-mi-iš) = Dadmišu (da-ad-mi-šu)

(The rest of the text is not extant)

3 Notes

I will address the Sumerian content separately, gods willing, in the main page on the Weidner God List.

(On I.1) An(u) is ‘Heaven’, Ani presumably a Hurrian borrowing from Sumerian, and Šamūma means ‘Heavens’. At Ugarit, however, Heaven seems not to have been worshipped as a distinct god, albeit there was worship of a deity ‘Earth-and-Heavens’ (we might perhaps translate ‘cosmos’).
(On I.2) Antu is not strictly a Sumerian name, but a Sumero-Akkadian one (Sumerian An plus Akkadian feminine ending –tu); she is the Earth. Our author did not see a Hurrian parallel for her, so she is explained simply as An’s wife. Tahāmatu is ‘the Deep’, compare the Ugaritic Akkadian spelling of ‘Earth and Heavens’ as ᵈIDIM u₃ IDIM, ‘god Deep and Deep’. (Although Tahāmatu is cognate with the Akkadian Tiamat/Tâmtu, they are not to be equated, at any rate not here.)
(On I.3) Kumarbi is a central character in the Hurrian Kumarbi Cycle, in which he opposes Teššub; these myths had a great (indirect) influence on Hesiod’s depiction of Kronos (equivalent to Kumarbi) and Zeus (=Teššub) in the Theogony. The Ugaritic ˀIlu has a more positive relation to Baˀlu (=Teššub), but they too were translated as Kronos and Zeus, as in the work of Philo of Byblos. In other words, the equation of these two names with each other and with Enlil is not a quirk, but reflects a long-lasting tradition that recognizes the same god under different names, even if his myths are told in various differing versions.
(On II.4) As with Antu, Ninlil is only explained rather than translated in the Hurrian column. ˀAthiratu is the spouse of ˀIlu, as Ninlil is of Enlil.

(On I.13) […]
(On I.14) Ningublaga is a son of the Moon. What could have brought our scholar to equate him with Allan(i), the Hurrian goddess of the underworld, is totally obscure to me. Similarly incomprehensible equations are made with sufficient frequency to make one suspicious; perhaps the list reflects very limited knowledge of Sumerian tradition, with Hurro-Ugaritic names inserted sometimes almost at random, or based purely on wordplay. By contrast, the correspondences between Hurrian and Ugaritic are never surprising, at least not in the light of current knowledge.
(On I.15) The Hurrian column seems to be simply a phonetic spelling of an obscure name.
(On I.16) As in the previous line.
(On I.17) Šauška was equated with Akkadian Ištar, and hence with Sumerian Innin (more commonly known today as Inanna), both spelled ᵈINNIN). The Ugaritic column almost certainly read ˤAthtartu, as she is elsewhere treated as the same as both Šauška and Ištar.
(On I.18) The Hurrian column, once again, seems to be simply a phonetic spelling of the Sumerian, and may not necessarily reflect the presence of the name Dumuzi in Hurrian usage.

(On I.22) Kanizuran is surely from the Sumerian, but the final –n suggests adoption into Hurrian rather than a purely phonetic spelling.
(On I.23) […]
(On I.24) […]
(On 25) In the Sumerian context, the first name was read Šara (ᵈšara). Here, it is taken as a common noun, meaning ‘sanctuary’, not a deity.

(On II.1) […]
(On II.2) […]
(On II.3a) Yōmu is ‘Day’; presumably so is Tu’enni. Here, UTU is also taken in the sense of ‘day’, and perhaps should be read as Akkadian ūmu (cognate with Yōmu), not as the Sumerian god Utu, who is the Sun, not the Day (although as a common noun, it may have both meanings).
(On II.3b) Utu (Akkadian Šamaš), Šimige and Šapšu are all the Sun. The identification of the different names as one god is thefore virtually a given.
(On II.4) In the Sumerian context, the first name should be read as a.a, that is, Aya, the wife of Utu. But our scholar has instead read it as Ea (an Akkadian name, equivalent to Sumerian Enki), which was adopted into Hurrian as Eyan, and also serves as a translation for Ugaritic Kōtharu elsewhere. Both E(y)a(n) and Kōtharu are associated with crafts and arts. (For Kōtharu, see Hephaestus.)

(On II.11–11b) Ḫudena appears with Ḫudellurra in Ugaritic texts (spelled ḫdn w ḫdlr), but this pair (or possibly larger group) of goddesses guarding childbirth seems to have little or no relation to the warlike gods Amal and Zababa.
(On II.12) Dadmišu is simply the Ugaritic adaptation of Tatmiš, the name of a Hurrian goddess. Why she would be equated to the Sumerian messenger god Papsukkal, however, I cannot conceive.
(On II.13) […]
(On II.14) For Milkun/Gatharu, see on […]. […]
(On II.15) Anatu, for once, is borrowed from Ugaritic into Hurrian rather than the other way around. […]
(On II.16) For Milkun/Gatharu, see on […] and II.14. Why he is equated with the goddess Babu here is unclear to me.
(On II.17) For Šimige/Šapšu, the Sun, see on […]. Lugalbanda likely had little relevance to Ugaritic culture, and so is equated with a more recognizabe major god.
(On II.18) […]
(On II.19) Aštabi = ˤAthtaru was an established convention at Ugarit, perhaps in part suggested by their similarity (in Akkadian spelling, Aštabi and Aštaru). […]
(On II.20) Teššab and Baˤlu are generally equated as the same god, but Imzu’anna is a goddess, the wife of Lugalmarada (of line 49). It may be that the author of the trilingual list has misinterpreted im-zu-an-na as IŠKUR zu-an-na, ‘Iškur of Zu’anna’, as IŠKUR (the same sign as im) is the usual Sumero-Akkadian spelling for Teššab and Baˤlu (translated into Akkadian as Adad, into Sumerian as Iškur).
(On II.21) Cf. on […]. This equation is much more understandable.