Tables of Contents

1 Ancient Table of Contents

This table of contents with 32 headings does not go back to Sallustius himself, but quite probably to a pagan reader. It is represented with Greek letters (αʹ, βʹ, etc.) in the text.

The headings of the book of Sallustius the Philosopher:

  • αʹ. What the reader should be like; and on common conception.
  • βʹ. That a god is not subject to change.
  • γʹ. That every god is unoriginated and eternal.
  • δʹ. That every god is incorporeal.
  • εʹ. That they are not in a place.
  • ϛʹ. On myths; that the myths are also divine.
  • ζʹ. Why the myths are divine.
  • ηʹ. That there are five kinds of myths; and examples of each.
  • θʹ. On the First Cause.
  • ιʹ. On the gods beyond the cosmos.
  • ιαʹ. On the twelve gods within the cosmos.
  • ιβʹ. That there are twelve spheres.
  • ιγʹ. On the nature of the cosmos and its eternity.
  • ιδʹ. That the earth is in the center; and why.
  • ιεʹ. On intellect and soul.
  • ιϛʹ. That the soul is immortal.
  • ιζʹ. On providence, fate and fortune.
  • ιηʹ. On virtue and vice.
  • ιθʹ. On proper and corrupt government.
  • κʹ. What the origin of evils is; and that there is no nature of evil.
  • καʹ. How eternal things are said to be originated.
  • κβʹ. How the gods are said to be angered and appeased when they are not subject to change.
  • κγʹ. Why we honor the gods although they stand in need of nothing.
  • κδʹ. On sacrifices and other honors; that we do not benefit gods, but humans.
  • κεʹ. That the cosmos is also imperishable by nature.
  • κϛʹ. Why instances of godlessness arise;1 and that a god cannot be harmed.
  • κζʹ. That inauspicious days exist because humans cannot always worship.
  • κηʹ. Why wrongdoers are not punished immediately.
  • κθʹ. That there are different punishments; and all (are undergone) with the irrational soul and through the shadowy body.
  • λʹ. On transmigration; and in what sense souls are said to be borne into irrational animals.
  • λαʹ. That there must be transmigration.
  • λβʹ. That the good are fortunate, both when they live and when they have died.

☙ Notes ❧

1. The manuscripts have “Why sacrifices take place”, not an impossible reading, but then perhaps in reference to the previous section.


2 Renaissance Table of Contents

Leo Allatius, in the first printing of Sallustius’ text, condensed the 32 traditional headings into 21, which have been used by all subsequent editors. Taylor and Murray even integrate Allatius’ headings into the text, as if they were part of Sallustius’ composition. In the translation, the modern chapter divisions are marked with Roman numerals (I, II, etc.). Rochefort’s subdivisions of the sections are marked with Arabic numerals (1, 2, etc.).

Headings:

  • I (αʹ). What the reader ought to be like; and on common conception.
  • II (βʹ–εʹ). That a god is unchangeable, unoriginated, eternal, incorporeal, and not in a place.
  • III (ϛʹ–ζʹ). On myths, that they are divine; and why.
  • IV (ηʹ). That there are five kinds of myths; and examples of each.
  • V (θʹ). On the First Cause.
  • VI (ιʹ–ιαʹ). On the gods beyond the cosmos and the gods within the cosmos.
  • VII (ιβʹ–ιδʹ). On the nature of the cosmos, and its eternity.
  • VIII (ιεʹ–ιϛʹ). On intellect and soul; and that the soul is immortal.
  • IX (ιζʹ). On providence, fate and fortune.
  • X (ιηʹ). On virtue and vice.
  • XI (ιθʹ). On proper and corrupt government.
  • XII (κʹ). What the origin of evils is; and that there is no nature of evil.
  • XIII (καʹ). In what sense eternal things are said to be originated.
  • XIV (κβʹ). In what sense the gods are said to be angered and appeased when they are not subject to change.
  • XV (κγʹ). Why we honor the gods although they stand in need of nothing.
  • XVI (κδʹ). On sacrifices and other honors by which we do not benefit gods, but humans.
  • XVII (κεʹ). That the cosmos is imperishable by nature.
  • XVIII (κϛʹ–κζʹ). Why instances of godlessness arise; and that a god cannot be hurt.
  • XIX (κηʹ–κθʹ). Why wrongdoers are not punished immediately.
  • XX (λʹ–λαʹ). On transmigration; and in what sense souls are said to be borne into irrational animals.
  • XXI (λβʹ). That the good are fortunate, both when they live and when they have died.