Category: Ritual Expertise > Offerings

1 Introduction

Libations – liquid offerings poured out in honor of a god – are a fundamental part of worshipping the gods. The emperor Julian, for instance, lamenting the neglect of sacred rituals in his day, wrote that “when the annual festival came around, no one provided lamp oil for the god, nor a libation (spondē), nor an animal sacrifice (hiereion), nor frankincense!” (Julian, Misopogon 35). A festival, properly celebrated, would proffer “animal sacrifices, libations, dancing troupes for the god, incenses, and youths assembled around the temple precinct (temenos) with souls wholly attuned to the gods (theoprepestata), adorned with magnificent white clothes” (ibid. 34).

Now, a private ritual would naturally not involve all this pomp and circumstance, but libations are one element that is a constant, from the simplest and most frugal offerings to celebrations by kings and emperors. On this page, I will lay out how libations are made, and what substances are offered to which beings.

Note: This article throughout assumes a Greco-Roman perspective (the Greek and Latin evidence being largely complementary), alongside some Greco-Egyptian material, but I hope to address other traditions (Egyptian, Mesopotamian, Ugaritic, Hittite) in the future, either on this page or separately.

2 Making a libation

There are no set words and no fixed series of steps involved in making libations (whatever you may read to the contrary in modern handbooks or websites), except that purification must come before the rite of offering itself. But purification itself means nothing more than

  1. washing (at least) your hands and
  2. cleaning the vessel(s) you use for pouring,

in either order. Then,

  1. you put the appropriate liquid into the libation vessel and
  2. make the libation from the vessel into the appropriate receptacle.

Here, the order is ordained by simple necessity. But there is no fixed relation between the sequence of events and prayer, which can take place together with the act of pouring, but also before or after (assuming you use a spoken prayer at all).

I will now go on illustrate these bare points at some length; if you only want to quickly identify the appropriate liquid and receptacle for your purposes, skip directly to section 4. (Section 3 is where I derive the relevant information from the sources.)

Achilles’ ideal libation

There is a description of a libation made by Achilles in the Iliad that is so exemplary, the ancient commentators observe: “the youth seems to be not a soldier, but a kind of Pythagorean”. In this passage (Iliad 16.225–243), the hero retrieves a well-made cup or goblet (depas) which he uses only to libate Zeus. He then

  1. first purifies the vessel with sulphur – “according to an ancestral custom”, as the scholia add –,
  2. and then washes it in flows of water.
  3. After this, he washes his hands,
  4. then draws wine from some larger vessel (which goes unmentioned).
  5. Then he prays and pours out the wine from his goblet (into what, again goes unmentioned), apparently both at the same time, while gazing up at heaven.

When the libation is part of a group sacrifice and banquet, these steps naturally change: there are attendants or “heralds” pouring water over everyone’s hands and pouring wine into their individual cups, and these serve both to make an initial libation (poured over the animal sacrifice burning on the altar) and, after that, to drink from at the feast (see, e.g., Odyssey 3.338–342).

On the purification of the vessel

But setting these specifics of festival offerings aside, which parts of Achilles’ “Pythagorean” ritual are normative, and which can be modified? Firstly, in the purification of the cup, what matters is simply that it is clean, not the manner in which it is cleaned. This is abundantly clear from the fact that the commentators on this passage were not united in their interpretation of its meaning. To quote Eustathius: “By the word theeion, he either means sulphur (theaphos), or the fine vapor/soot of fire, as it seemed to some of the ancients, or also a certain kind of incense, which they made use of for purification and apopotropaic ritual. This is also why it seemed to be theion (‘divine’ or ‘sulphur’)” (Eustathius, On the Iliad, vol. 3, p. 841). The basic idea of purifying with fire and water was common enough, but not so common that it can be considered a requirement. In short, cleaning whatever vessel you use with water (and dish soap if necessary) ought to be sufficient.

On the vessel itself

Secondly, must the vessel always be a depas, whatever this means? Decidedly not. In a speech put into the mouth of the Pythagorean philosopher Apollonius of Tyana by Philostratus (and perhaps reflecting his real teaching), he tells us not to drink from the potērion or ‘drinking-vessel’ which we use for libations, but to “keep it immaculate, and never drunk from, for the gods”; and to give it a handle and pour the libation out over the handle, because humans are least likely to drink from this part (Life of Apollonius of Tyana 4.20, expounding one of Pythagoras’ Symbols). This description resembles a modern coffee mug more than it does anything we would call a goblet, and also points to the fact that the shape of the vessel, and whether it could be used for ordinary purposes (as in the feast of the Iliad and at ordinary banquets), were things very much up for debate.

Thirdly, as for the gazing upwards to heaven: this reflects the situation of Achilles, who is standing outside, and the nature of the god he is addressing, namely the heavenly god Zeus. When standing before a household shrine, it obviously makes more sense to look at the images there than at the ceiling, although one should at least consider whether certain Prayer Gestures are called for. For instance, it is claimed by one Latin author that “fundere means to libate with a raised hand, as is done in sacrifices to the gods above (sacra superna); while vergere means to pour with the hand turned to the left side, so that the dish (patera) is turned over, as is done in the sacrifices to the gods below (inferna sacra)” (Servius, On the Aeneid 6.244). While this particular distinction has no binding force, analogous differentiations may be useful.

In short: while it is rewarding to study all the details of such descriptions from Homer, or in other authors, there is so much variation between them that only the most general outlines actually need to be followed: (1) hands and offering vessels must be washed; (2) the liquid is poured into a receptacle; (3) specific substances, gestures, prayers and so on can be given depending on deity and context, but such specificity is not always required.

On prayers accompanying libation

The prayer that accompanies Achilles’ libation occupies eleven lines, but it is worth going through them in summary:

  1. The prayer begins with the words Zeu ana Dōdōnaie Pelasgike, “O Zeus, king, Dodonian, Pelasgian!”, that is, the proper name and some bynames of the god.
  2. “You who dwell afar”, in Dodona, etc. The god is called from the place or places where he may be (and the mention of which extols him), in order to next ask him to come hither.
  3. Achilles then says that Zeus has heard his prayers before; “so also bring to pass what I now wish for!”
  4. Then he describes in detail what he is undertaking and what outcome he is praying for.

In this case, the motivation for the ceremony lies in a principle articulated, for instance, in the Golden Verses of the Pythagoreans: “Set out on any work / by praying that you will complete it!” Not every prayer of this kind has to be as complex, however, because “they know what is meant even when little is said” (as Dio Chrysostomus observed). It suffices to name the god(s) in question, or simply the gods in general (“O gods!” or “I pray to the gods”), and briefly name the task you are hoping for help with.

If there is no specific occasion, but the libation is part of your regular worship, you can instead make a generic request (“I pray that you may give me good things” or “Receive my offering kindly!”), praise the gods without making a request, or simply worship in silence. (See all my posts on Hymns and Prayers.)

3 Determining the appropriate liquid and receptacle

This will not be the place to discuss every technicality relating to libations, such as the curious fact that only river water from the Numicus was supposed to be used in libations to Vesta (Servius, On the Aeneid 7.150; this rule can of course only have applied in certain very localized contexts). Rather, we will begin from the fact that wine was poured for the gods and consider, firstly, when other liquids must or can be offered; and secondly, where they are poured, a detail which is left out in the exemplary account of Achilles’ libation.

Homeric libations

In the Homeric poems, libations are typically of wine – unmixed wine (Scholia on Iliad 4.159) – poured into the fire burning on an altar (bōmos), the same fire that receives the gods’ portion of a sacrificed animal (cf. Odyssey 3.338–342). In the absence of an altar, they are poured onto the ground (e.g., Iliad 7.480; presumably also in Achilles’ “Pythagorean” libation). Libations can be made “to the blessed gods who possess wide heaven” (Odyssey 13.55–56) as a whole, or to individual deities. This despite the fact that the gods are said not to drink wine (Iliad 5.341), instead consuming the divine foods nectar and ambrosia at their banquets.

So far as I can tell, no god in the Iliad or Odyssey receives a libation of anything but wine (although perhaps only because libations to gods who would require wineless offerings are not described). However, in the Odyssey, there are two quite full descriptions (once as instructions from Circe, once as actual deeds by Odysseus) of a complex libation ritual for the dead, which still uses wine, but in this case alongside other liquids. I am referring to the sacrifice that Odysseus makes to consult the dead diviner Tiresias, and which takes the following steps (from Odyssey 10.516–540 and 11.23–50):

  1. Odysseus digs a pit (bothros) of “a cubit’s length this way and that” with his sword.
  2. He pours a libation to all the dead into the pit,
  3. first with melikrētos (Attic melikratos),
  4. then with sweet wine,
  5. and finally with water;
  6. after which he sprinkles white barley-groats over the libations.
  7. Then, he prays, and vows that he will make animal sacrifices (of a barren heifer to the dead in general, and of a wholly black ram to Tiresias) when he returns to Ithaca.
  8. After this, he sacrifices sheep by cutting their throats over the pit and letting the blood run into it.
  9. He draws his sword to keep the other dead from drinking of this blood until Tiresias has done so.
  10. Meanwhile, his companions burn the sheep as offerings to Hades and Persephone.

To go through this in sequence, based mainly on the expansive commentary of Eustathius:

  1. From its description, the pit may be square or round (Eustathius, On the Odyssey, vol. 1, p. 393).
  2. The proper term for a libation to the dead is not spondē or loibē, as in the case of the gods, but khoē (ibid.), although this rule is not strictly held to by ancient authors.
  3. Melikratos is a mixture of honey and milk, or of honey and water. Eustathius explains: “To souls, and to those in (the realm) of Hades in general, a sober (nēphalion) drink is appropriate, one of honey as much as one of water. It is on this account, also, that the Greeks, when sacrificing to the Sun above, would libate of honey, according to the account of Phylarchus which the Deipnosophist (Athenaeus) has handed down, not bringing wine to the altars, because they said that the one who goes around and holds together the universe is removed from drunkenness” (ibid.).
  4. No comment on the sweet wine is made by Eustathius, perhaps because the combination of a ‘sober’ offering with one of wine would vitiate his explanation (on 3), which holds these as mutually exclusive.
  5. See on 3.
  6. “Powder of barley-groats is now quite neglected. But for the ancients it was entirely customary for (making) porridge. Thus, said libation for the dead (khoḕ nekrikós) might be called a kind of kykeṓn” (ibid.), that is, a kind of thick drink made with barley. But this analysis is questionable, as barley-groats were also scattered over burnt offerings.
  7. p.393f (down to ὀνομάζει)
  8. ?? – p.394 (down to ἀνελλιπῶς)
  9. 399.10 / Scholia
  10. Scholia 11.46

down to 394.20

* “For the sake of similarity, because the affairs(?) of the dead are also infertile and barren”, Scholia on Odyssey 10.52.

And so much for Homer.

Wine and wineless libations

As its complexity suggests, the Odyssey’s fourfold libation to the dead, plus sheep sacrifice to Hades and Persephone, is not representative of the ordinary cult (worship) of the deceased. It violates the simple contrast between wine-libations (for the heavenly gods) and sober libations (for the dead and all in the underworld) that is laid out by Eustathius in his commentary, and instead calls to mind instructions for elaborate libations found in the so-called Greek Magical Papyri (PGM). This is not terribly surprising, since Odysseus is acting according to the directions of Circe, the paradigmatic “witch”, and the ritual’s purpose has more to do with the many divinatory rituals in the PGM than with the conventional reverence paid to the dead.

So, before looking at the more involved libations of the PGM, let us build from the ground up. How much of the fourfold libation rite also holds for quotidian ritual to the dead, and what more can we say about wine-libations, beyond what is in Homer?

The basic principle is clear enough. Many ancient authorities held that “it was proper (decebat) to libate with wine only to the gods above (dii superi)” (Servius, On the Aeneid 8.275). These can also be called the celestial or heavenly gods (lat. dii caelestes = gr. theoi ouranioi) or the Olympians, and they are precisely the gods who play the most eminent roles in Homer: Zeus (Jupiter), Hera (Juno), Aphrodite (Venus), Athena (Minerva), Hermes (Mercury), Apollon, and so on. No wonder, then, that the Homeric libations are of wine.

The counterpart to those above (the ‘supernals’) are, naturally enough, those below (the ‘infernals’, lat. dii inferi = gr. theoi khthonioi). To take up Eustathius’ phrase again, these are the “souls, and those in the realm of Hades in general”, including the rulers of the underworld, Hades and Persephone. How much of a distinction has to be made in cult between the underworld gods and the dead they reign over is strongly dependent on context. In the Odyssey, for instance, we saw them worshipped together, yet separately: the dead with libations and the gods with burnt-offerings. In any case, if we follow Eustathius and Servius, the distinctive characteristic of libations to those below is that they must be wineless or ‘sober’.

We know, however, that wine sometimes was offered to the underworld gods, and not just in rites like the one Circe taught Odysseus. This can have a variety of reasons:

  • generic joint offerings, universal offerings (gods of heaven = pars pro toto?)
  • ambiguous problematizing the dichotomy; Demeter/Ceres – debated : Servius : cvi tv lacte favos et miti dilve baccho cui tu liba 1.344.1 de lacte, melle, vino. nam superfluum est quod quidam dicunt, contra religionem dixisse Vergilium, licere Cereri de vino sacri- ficari: pontificales namque hoc non vetant libri. quod autem ait Plautus {⁴³in Aulularia}⁴³, cuius illi utuntur exemplo, „Cererin 5 nuptias facturi estis, qui sine temeto huc advenitis?“ non est huic loco contrarium: nam aliud est sacrum, aliud nuptias Ce- ceri celebrare, in quibus re vera vinum adhiberi nefas fuerat, quae Orci nuptiae dicebantur, quas praesentia sua pontifices ingenti sol- lemnitate celebrabant. alii hunc locum aliter accipiunt, ut ‚miti 10 Baccho‘ non sit septimus, sed dativus et duo numina intellegamus, Liberi et Cereris—nam supra quoque ait ‚in primis venerare deos‘: ut sit sensus, cui Cereri et miti Baccho, {⁴³id est Libero patri,}⁴³ favos lacte dilue, id est eis sacrifica melle et lacte permixtis.
  • different meanings of khoê distinctions (whole offering!); substance vs. amount (choe). … “They used merely to libate to the gods above (dii superi), but to actually throw the vessels into the fire when they sacrificed to the gods below (inferi)” (Servius, On the Aeneid 6.225).

Can chthonic libations also be defined positively? cf. Apollon’s Taxonomy; Proclus?
restrictions on offerings to celestial gods? no blood maybe?

(Un)mixed wine and other alcoholic offerings

spond- in Athenaeus
Beer? (Herodotus? Athenaeus?)

On sober libations and their various kinds

not just chthonic

Libations of blood

Scholia on Odyssey 11.37 (unless I use it above)

Complex libations


On the receptacle

But we also find a description of an elaborate libation, or rather series of libations for the dead, which are poured into a small pit dug for the purpose (discussed in detail below). In this section, I will discuss in detail when wine is and is not meant to be used; to what extent other liquids can (or should) replace it; how exactly we are to understand these ‘altars’ and ‘pits’; what other receptacles there are; and when we should use them. This discussion will be quite involved, but I will briefly summarize my results in section 4.

what is poured, where is it poured (Homer sometimes says it!)

time of day?

worship of Hades? Yes or no?

The clearest contrast to those above are

represented by the gods below (dii inferni or inferi), the gods of the underworld, whom the Greek language terms the chthonic or catachthonic gods, those ‘of the earth’ or ‘below the earth’.

libation for the dead

Whither poureth Achilles??

Porphyry ap. Eus. 4.20: “Σπεύδοντος γοῦν τοῦ προφήτου αὐτοπτῆσαι τὸ θεῖον καὶ ἐπειγομένου ὁ Ἀπόλλων ἀδύνατον ἔφη τὸ τοιοῦτο πρὶν λύτρα τῷ πονηρῷ δαίμονι δοῦναι. λέγει δὲ οὕτως· λύτρα δίδου γαίης πατρίης οἰκήτορι σεμνῷ, πρῶτα χοάς, μετέπειτα πυρὴν ἠδ‘ αἷμα κελαινὸν οἴνου παμμέλανός <τ‘> ὀΐων θ‘ ἅμα λευκὰ ῥέεθρα. 8καὶ σαφέστερον εἶπεν περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν· οἶνον καὶ γάλα βάλλε καὶ ὕδατος ἀγλαὸν εἶδος καὶ ξύλα καρπὸν ἔχοντα διογνήτων ἀκυλαίων· σπλάγχνα δὲ κατθέμενος λιπαροῖς ἅμα νάμασι σπένδε. 8μετὰ ποίας δὲ εὐχῆς, ἐρωτηθεὶς ἤρξατο μέν, οὐ μὴν ἐπλήρωσεν, οὕτως εἰπών· δαῖμον ἀλιτρονόων ψυχῶν διάδημα λελογχώς, ἠερίων ὑπένερθε μυχῶν χθονίων τ‘ ἐφύπερθεν.”

Apostolius: 3.51.1 <Ἀποφράδες ἡμέραι:> αἱ ἀνεπιτήδειοι πρὸς πράξεις, 3.51.2 ἐν αἷς καὶ τοῖς κατοιχομένοις χοὰς ἐπέφερον.

Etymologicum Magnum: 131.13 <Ἀποφράδες>: Ἀποφράδας ἔλεγον οἱ Ἀττικοὶ τὰς ἀπηγορευμένας ἡμέρας, ἃς ὑπελάμβανον χείρους 131.15 εἶναι τῶν ἄλλων· ἃς δὴ καὶ ἐπεικάδας καλοῦσι φθί- νοντος τοῦ μηνὸς, τετράδα, τρίτην, δευτέραν. Ἢ τὰς ἡμέρας ἐν αἷς τὰς φονικὰς δίκας ἐδίκαζον· διὰ τὸ οἷον ἀποφράττεσθαι τὸ τῆς σελήνης φῶς ἐν αὐταῖς. Καὶ τοὺς πονηροὺς δὲ ἀποφράδας ἐπιθετι- 131.20 κῶς ἐκάλεσαν· οἷον, Ἄνθρωπος ἀποφρὰς καὶ βλέπων ἀπιστίαν. Παρὰ τὸ φῶ ῥῆμα, φράζω· ὁ μέλλων, φράσω· ἀπο- βολῇ τοῦ ω, φράς· καὶ ἐν συνθέσει, ἀποφράς.

Lucian, Pseudologista: πῶς γὰρ ἂν ᾐτιῶ βάρβαρον εἶναί με τὴν φωνὴν ἐπ‘ αὐτῷ, εἰπόντα ὑπὲρ σοῦ ὡς ἀποφράδι ὅμοιος εἴης (τὸν γὰρ τρόπον σου νὴ Δία μέμνημαι εἰκάσας τῇ τοιαύτῃ ἡμέρᾳ), εἰ μὴ καὶ παντάπασιν ἀνήκοος ἦσθα τοῦ ὀνόματος;

Plutarchus Biogr., Phil., Aetia Romana et Graeca (263d-304f) Stephanus page 270, section A, line 4 … ὅρα δὴ μή, καθάπερ τῶν μηνῶν τὸν μὲν πρῶτον ὀλυμπίοις θεοῖς ἱέρωσαν, τὸν δὲ δεύτερον χθονίοις ἐν ᾧ καὶ καθαρμούς τινας τελοῦσι καὶ τοῖς κατοιχομένοις ἐναγίζουσιν, | οὕτω τῶν ἡμερῶν τὰς μὲν οἷον ἀρχὰς καὶ κυρίας ὥσπερ εἴρηται τρεῖς οὔσας ἑορτασίμους καὶ ἱερὰς ἔθεντο, τὰς δ‘ ἐφεξῆς δαίμοσι καὶ φθιτοῖς ἐπιφημίσαντες ἀποφράδας καὶ ἀπράκτους ἐνόμισαν. …

Phrynichus, Praeparatio Sophistica 5.11 <ἄνθρωπος ἀποφράς> (Eupol.): ἀποφράδες ἡμέραι, καθ‘ ἃς ἀπηγόρευτό τι πράττειν. σημαίνει οὖν τὸν οἷον ἀπαίσιον καὶ ἔξεδρον καὶ ἐπάρατον ἄνθρωπον ‘…. συνέτυχεν ἐξιόντι μοι ἄνθρωπος ἀποφρὰς καὶ βλέπων ἀπιστίαν’.

Plut. Alc.: 34.1.1 Οὕτω δὲ τοῦ Ἀλκιβιάδου λαμπρῶς εὐημεροῦντος, ὑπέθραττεν ἐνίους ὅμως ὁ τῆς καθόδου καιρός. ᾗ γὰρ ἡμέρᾳ κατέπλευσεν, ἐδρᾶτο τὰ Πλυντήρια τῇ θεῷ. δρῶσι δὲ τὰ ὄργια Πραξιεργίδαι Θαργηλιῶνος ἕκτῃ φθίνοντος 34.1.5 ἀπόρρητα, τόν τε κόσμον ἀφελόντες καὶ τὸ ἕδος κατακαλύ- 34.2.1 ψαντες. ὅθεν ἐν ταῖς μάλιστα τῶν ἀποφράδων τὴν ἡμέραν ταύτην ἄπρακτον Ἀθηναῖοι νομίζουσιν. οὐ φιλοφρόνως οὖν οὐδ‘ εὐμενῶς ἐδόκει προσδεχομένη τὸν Ἀλκιβιάδην ἡ θεὸς παρακαλύπτεσθαι καὶ ἀπελαύνειν ἑαυτῆς.

Oracle of Apollon

Dionysius Halicarnass.: ἱδρύσαντο δὲ καὶ Δήμητρος ἱερὸν καὶ τὰς θυσίας αὐτῇ διὰ γυναικῶν τε καὶ νηφαλίους ἔθυσαν, ὡς Ἕλλησι νόμος, ὧν οὐδὲν ὁ καθ‘ ἡμᾶς ἤλλαξε χρόνος.

Porphyry, On Abstinence: 2.20.1 ὅτι δὲ οὐ τῷ ὄγκῳ χαίρει ὁ θεὸς τῶν θυσιῶν, ἀλλὰ τῷ τυχόντι, δῆλον ἐκ τοῦ τῆς καθ‘ ἡμέραν τρο- φῆς, κἂν ὁποία τις οὖν αὕτη παρατεθῇ, ταύτης πρὸ τῶν ἀπολαύσεων πάντας ἀπάρχεσθαι μικρὸν μέν, 2.20.5 ἀλλὰ τῷ μικρῷ τούτῳ παντὸς μᾶλλον μεγάλη τίς ἐστι τιμή. διὰ πολλῶν δὲ ὁ Θεόφραστος <ἐκ> τῶν παρ‘ ἑκά- στοις πατρίων ἐπιδείξας, ὅτι τὸ παλαιὸν τῶν θυσιῶν διὰ τῶν καρπῶν ἦν ἔτ‘ εἰπὼν πρότερον τῆς πόας 2.20.10 λαμβανομένης, καὶ τὰ τῶν σπονδῶν ἐξηγεῖται τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον. τὰ μὲν ἀρχαῖα τῶν ἱερῶν νηφάλια παρὰ πολλοῖς ἦν, νηφάλια δ‘ ἐστὶν τὰ ὑδρόσπονδα, τὰ δὲ μετὰ ταῦτα μελίσπονδα· τοῦτον γὰρ ἕτοιμον παρὰ μελιττῶν πρῶτον 2.20.15 ἐλάβομεν τὸν ὑγρὸν καρπόν· εἶτ‘ ἐλαιόσπονδα· τέλος 2.21.1 δ‘ ἐπὶ πᾶσιν τὰ ὕστερον γεγονότα οἰνόσπονδα.

Scholia on Plutus (Tzetzes, rec. 2): sch plut.1130.1 <σπλάγχνων τε θερμῶν:> τῷ Ἑρμῇ τῶν ἱερείων ἡ ὠμοπλάτη ἱέρωτο· ἔθυον δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ σπλάγχνα ἤτοι ἐντόσθια θερμά, ὀπτά τε καὶ sch plut.1130.5 περίεφθα· καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις θεοῖς ἄκρατον σπένδοντες τὴν σπονδήν, ἢ ὕδωρ μόνον, ὡς Ἐρινύσιν, ἢ μόνον sch plut.1130.8 οἶνον, ὡς πᾶσι τοῖς ἄλλοις θεοῖς, τῷ Ἑρμῇ κεκραμένον ἔσπενδον οἶνον ἢ sch plut.1130.10 ψυχρῷ εἴτ‘ οὖν εὐζέοντι ὕδατι. μεμνημένου γοῦν τοῦ Ἑρμοῦ τούτων καὶ τῇ στερήσει ὀδυνωμένου, πρὸς ἓν ἕκαστον τῶν παρ‘ Ἑρμοῦ λεγο- μένων ὀδυνηρῶν φέρει γελοῖά τινα sch plut.1130.15 προσφυῆ τὸν Καρίωνα λέγοντα, ὡς τὸ <“ὀδύνη> σου <τὰ σπλάγχνα> κατέχει, Ἑρμῆ, ὅτι νῦν ἐστερήθης ἐκείνης τῆς προσαγομένης σοι τῶν σπλάγχνων θυσίας”. πρὸς δὲ τὸ sch plut.1130.20 <“κύλικος ἶσον ἴσῳ κεκραμένης”> “τὴν ἐκ τῆς κάτω κύλικος ἐξερχο- μένην – ὁ Καρίων φησίν – ὦ Ἑρμῆ πιὼν <οὐκ ἂν φθάνοις> ὑποχωρῶν;” sch plut.1134.1 <τὸν σαυτοῦ φίλον:> πολλαὶ τέχναι ἀνάκεινται τῷ Ἑρμῇ· μία δὲ τούτων καὶ ἡ κλεπτῶν· ἐπεὶ δὲ κλέπται καὶ οἱ οἰκέται, τούτου ἕνεκεν ὁ Ἑρμῆς ἑαυτὸν φίλον τῷ Καρίωνι ὀνομάζει.

Diogenianus, Paroemiae 6.76: Νηφάλια ξύλα:> τὰ μὴ ἀμπέλινα, μηδὲ σύκινα, μηδὲ μύρσινα· ἐκεῖνα γὰρ <οἰνόσπονδα> λέγονται. // Apostolius 12.9.1 <Νηφάλια ξύλα:> τὰ μὴ ἀμπέλινα μηδὲ σύκινα μηδὲ μύρσινα· ἐκεῖνα γὰρ οἰνόσπονδα λέγεται.

Hesychius: nu.545.1 <νηφάλιοι>· νήφοντες, μὴ πεπωκότες. ἢ θύματα καὶ βωμοί, ἐφ‘ ὧν οἶνος οὐ σπένδεται. ἢ *σοφοί (A)
nu.546.1 <νηφάλια ξύλα>· τὰ μὴ ἀμπέλινα, ἢ συκάμινα, ἢ σύκινα· ἐκεῖνα γὰρ οἰνόσπονδα λέγονται

Psellus, Sacrificial Art: νηφαλίοις μὲν γὰρ θεοῖς ἐδρυοτόμουν καὶ 154.10 ἐκεῖθεν ἀνῆπτον πυράς. Βάκχαις δὲ καὶ Διονύσῳ κληματίδες ἀνέκαιον τὴν πυρκαϊάν, καὶ πάντα τούτοις οἰνόσπονδα·

xul- ampelin-: PGM 36.296; 7.544; 5.232
PGM: elaion, oinon, meli
PGM 3.694, 4.888, 4.2946, 4.3124, 7.205, 13.107, 13.1016, 12.215, 1.287

Scholia on Lucian: <χοαί*>] τὸ ἐπιχεόμενον τοῖς ἀποθανοῦσι μελίκρατον. (ed. Rabe, 19.2)

Heliodorus, Aethiopica Ἡ γὰρ πρεσβῦτις ἀνενοχλήτου καὶ ἀκατόπτου σχολῆς ἐπειλῆφθαι νομίσασα πρῶτα μὲν βόθρον ὠρύξατο, ἔπειτα πυρκαϊὰν ἐκ θατέρου μέρους ἐξῆψε καὶ μέσον ἀμφοῖν τὸν νεκρὸν τοῦ παιδὸς προθεμένη κρατῆρά τε ὀστρακοῦν ἔκ τινος παρακειμένου τρίποδος ἀνελομένη μέλιτος ἐπέχει τῷ βόθρῳ καὶ αὖθις ἐξ ἑτέρου γάλακτος, καὶ οἶνον ἐκ τρίτων ἐπέσπενδεν· εἶτα πέμμα στεάτινον εἰς ἀνδρὸς μίμημα πεπλασμένον δάφνῃ καὶ μαράθῳ κατα- στέψασα εἰς τὸν βόθρον ἐνέβαλλεν.

Orphic Argonautica 571ffff: Φιτροὺς δ‘ αἶψα κόμιζον, ἰδ‘ ἔντομα πορσύνοντες
παμμέλαν‘ ἐν βόθροις μετεκίαθον· αὐτὰρ ἔγωγε
ψυχὴν ἱλασάμην, σπένδων μειλίγματα χύτλων
574 ὕδατί τ‘ ἠδὲ γάλακτι, μελισσορύτων ἀπὸ νασμῶν
575 λοιβαῖς συμπροχέων, καὶ ἐμοῖς ὕμνοισι γεραίρων.

Hesychius chi.579.1 <χοάς>· τὰς σπονδὰς τῶν νεκρῶν

Scholia on Hesiod: sch.342-343.1 * <τὸν φιλέοντ‘ ἐπὶ δαῖτα καλεῖν:> ταῦτα καὶ τὰ ἑπόμενα τούτοις περὶ τῶν πρὸς τοὺς φίλους καὶ γονέας καθηκόντων ἔχει τὴν παραίνε- σιν, οὐκ ὄντα ἠθικά, ὥς τισιν ἔδοξεν, ἀλλ‘ εἰς εὐγενὲς sch.342-343.5 ἦθος καὶ δεξιὸν προσάγοντα τὸν πειθόμενον. οὐ γὰρ δεῖ τὰ αὐτὰ φίλοις καὶ ἐχθροῖς ἀποδιδόναι, οὐδ‘ ὁμοίως ἑκατέ- ρους ὁμοτραπέζους ποιεῖσθαι καὶ ὁμοσπόνδους, ἡγουμένους sch.342-343.8 καὶ τράπεζαν βωμὸν εἶναι τῆς ἑστίας καὶ πάντων τῶν τὴν τροφὴν δωρησαμένων· θύειν μὲν οὖν καὶ ὑμνεῖν νόμος πρὸ sch.342-343.10 τοῦ τῆς τροφῆς ἅψασθαι. δεῖ οὖν μὴ τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ἄγειν ἐπὶ δαῖτα φιλίαν δὴ ὑποκρινομένους, ἀλλὰ τοὺς ὄντως φί- λους οἷς καὶ κοινωνεῖν ὅσιον ὡς τῆς ἄλλης φιλίας οὕτω καὶ ἁλῶν καὶ σπονδῶν καὶ ἑστίας θεῶν καὶ φιλοφροσύνης. καὶ γὰρ εἰ ὡς ἔτυχε καὶ τοὺς ἐχθροὺς ἑστιῶμεν, τί ποιή- sch.342-343.15 σομεν ἐκείνων ἡμᾶς ἐν μέρει καλούντων ἐπὶ τὰ ὅμοια; μὴ ὑπακούοντες γὰρ ἀδικήσομεν τοὺς ὑπακούσαντας, ὑπακού- οντες δὲ προησόμεθα ἑαυτοὺς ἀνθρώποις ἀπεχθῶς διακειμέ- νοις. ταῦτα μὲν περὶ τῶν φίλων καὶ ἐχθρῶν τῆς συν- εστιάσεως. τὸν δὲ γείτονα τοῦ μὴ γείτονος αἱρετώτερον sch.342-343.20 εἰς τοιαύτην ἡγεῖσθαι κοινωνίαν δῆλον μὲν οὖν ὅτι λέ- γεται· τῆς φιλίας κοινῆς οὔσης οὐ γάρ που τὸν μὴ φίλον, γείτονα δέ, δι‘ αὐτὸ τοῦτο παραινεῖ μᾶλλον τοῦ φίλου ποι- εῖσθαι συνέστιον, προειπὼν <τὸν φιλέοντ‘ ἐπὶ δαῖτα καλεῖν.> τούτου δὲ ὄντος φανεροῦ πῶς sch.342-343.25 οὐκ εὔλογον πλέον τοῖς γείτοσι νέμειν ἢ τούτους μὲν <μὴ> παρεῖναι, τοὺς δὲ μὴ γείτονας εὐφραίνειν ταῖς φιλοτη- σίαις; οὐδὲ γὰρ τὰς γειτονιάσεις οἴεσθαι δεῖ μάτην ἡμῖν ἀπονέμεσθαι τοίων ἢ τοίων ἀνθρώπων θεόθεν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῦ- το εἰς τάξιν εἱμαρμένης ἔχειν, καὶ προσήκει καὶ πρὸς sch.342-343.30 ταύτην ἀφοσιοῦσθαι τὸν ἔχοντα νοῦν· τρόπον γάρ τινα καὶ ὁ γείτων ἡμῖν σύνοικός ἐστι καὶ ὁμωρόφιος.

Greek Anthology ΑΝΤΙΠΑΤΡΟΥ 9.72.1 Εὔκολος Ἑρμείας, ὦ ποιμένες, ἐν δὲ γάλακτι χαίρων καὶ δρυΐνῳ σπενδόμενος μέλιτι·

Photius: <Νηφάλια θύματα>: δίχα σπονδῆς. <Νηφάλιοι θυσίαι>: ἐν αἷς οἶνος οὐ σπένδεται· ἀλλὰ ὕδωρ καὶ μελίκρατον. <Νηφάλια ξύλα>: τὰ μὴ ἀμπέλινα· μήτε σύκινα μήτε μύρσινα· ἐκεῖνα γὰρ οἰνόσπονδα λέγεται.

Scholia in Euripidem sch Or.96.1 χοαὶ αἱ χεόμεναι τοῖς νεκροῖς σπονδαί: – MT

Plutarch, De tuenda sanitate praecepta: καὶ γὰρ αὐτῷ τῷ Διονύσῳ 132.E.12 πολλάκις νηφάλια θύομεν, ἐθιζόμενοι καλῶς μὴ 132.F.1 ζητεῖν ἀεὶ τὸν ἄκρατον.

Plutarch, De genio Socratis: ‘καὶ μήν’ ἔφη ‘Λεοντίδης <φησὶν> 578.D.10 ἄνθρωπον ὦφθαι παρὰ τὸ Λύσιδος μνημεῖον ἐκ νυκτῶν 578.E.1 ἀνιστάμενον, ἀκολουθίας πλήθει καὶ κατασκευῇ σοβαρόν, αὐτόθι κατηυλισμένον ἐπὶ στιβάδων· φαίνεσθαι γὰρ ἄγνου 578.E.3 καὶ μυρίκης χαμεύνας ἔτι δ‘ ἐμπύρων λείψανα καὶ χοὰς γάλακτος· ἕωθεν δὲ πυνθάνεσθαι τῶν ἀπαντώντων, εἰ 578.E.5 τοὺς Πολύμνιος παῖδας ἐνδημοῦντας εὑρήσει.’

Aesch. Eumenides 106fff: ἦ πολλὰ μὲν δὴ τῶν ἐμῶν ἐλείξατε·
χοάς τ‘ ἀοίνους, νηφάλια μειλίγματα,
καὶ νυκτίσεμνα δεῖπν‘ ἐπ‘ ἐσχάρᾳ πυρὸς
ἔθυον, ὥραν οὐδενὸς κοινὴν θεῶν.
858fffff: σὺ δ‘ ἐν τόποισι τοῖς ἐμοῖσι μὴ βάλῃς
μήθ‘ αἱματηρὰς θηγάνας, σπλάγχνων βλάβας
νέων, ἀοίνοις ἐμμανεῖς θυμώμασιν,
μήτ‘, ἐξελοῦσ‘ ὡς καρδίαν ἀλεκτόρων,
ἐν τοῖς ἐμοῖς ἀστοῖσιν ἱδρύσῃς Ἄρη
ἐμφύλιόν τε καὶ πρὸς ἀλλήλους θρασύν.

Fronto Additamenta(?) 5.5.1: Φῂς δὲ ξένια μὴ πέμπε<ς>θαι θεοῖς. ἢ οὐχὶ ξένια τὰ ψαιστὰ πόπανα 5.5.2 καὶ τὸ μέλι καὶ ὁ οἶνος ὁ σπενδόμενος καὶ τὸ γάλα καὶ τὰ σπλάγχνα τὰ τῶν ἱερείων; καὶ ὁ λιβανωτὸς δὲ ξένιον θεοῦ.

Scholia vetera in Sophoclem, OC.100.1 <νήφων ἀοίνοις> οὐ γὰρ σπένδεται οἶνος αὐ- OC.100.2 ταῖς ἀλλ‘ ὕδωρ καὶ νηφάλιαι καλοῦνται αἱ σπονδαὶ αὐτῶν· Πολέμων δὲ ἐν τῷ πρὸς Τίμαιον καὶ ἄλλοις τισὶ θεοῖς νηφαλίους φησὶ θυσίας γίνεσθαι γράφων OC.100.5 οὕτως, Ἀθηναῖοί τε γὰρ τοῖς τοιούτοις ἐπιμελεῖς ὄντες καὶ τὰ πρὸς τοὺς θεοὺς ὅσιοι νηφάλια μὲν ἱερὰ θύουσι Μνημοσύνῃ Μούσῃ, Ἠοῖ, Ἡλίῳ, Σελήνῃ, Νύμφαις, Ἀφροδίτῃ οὐρανίᾳ· Φιλόχορος δὲ καὶ περί τινων ἄλλων θυσιῶν τὸν αὐτὸν τρόπον δρωμένων φησὶν ἐν τῇ βʹ OC.100.10 τῶν Ἀτθίδων Διονύσῳ τε καὶ ταῖς Ἐρεχθέως θυγα- τράσι καὶ οὐ μόνον θυσίας νηφαλίους ἀλλὰ καὶ ξύλα τινὰ ἐφ‘ ὧν ἔκαιον· Κράτης μὲν οὖν ὁ Ἀθηναῖος τὰ μὴ ἀμπέλινα τῶν ξύλων πάντα νηφάλιά φησι προς- αγορεύεσθαι ὁ δὲ Φιλόχορος ἀκριβέστερόν φησι τὰ μήτε OC.100.15 ἀμπέλινα μήτε σύκινα ἀλλὰ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν θύμων νη- φάλια [φησὶ] καλεῖσθαι καὶ πρώτῃ φησὶν ὕλῃ πρὸς τὰς ἐμπύρους θυσίας ταύτῃ κεχρῆσθαι παρ‘ ὃ καὶ τοὔνομα λαβεῖν τὸν θύμον ὡς παρὰ τὴν θυμίασιν καὶ τὴν θυὴν πεποιημένης τῆς φωνῆς· εἰσὶ δέ τινες τὸ OC.100.20 παράπαν ἄσπονδοι θυσίαι κατὰ τύχην εἰς ἔθος παρ- ελθοῦσαι.

Aesch. Ag.: Ag.70.1 <ἀπύρων ἱερῶν>] τῶν θυσίων τῶν Μοιρῶν καὶ τῶν Ἐρινύων ἃ καὶ Ag.70.2 νηφάλια καλεῖται. M

Suda: nu.355.1 <Νηφάλια ξύλα:> τὰ μὴ ἀμπέλινα μήτε σύκινα μήτε μύρσινα· ἐκεῖνα γὰρ οἰνόσπονδα λέγεται. ὡς καιόμενα, ὅτε μὴ ὕδωρ, ἀλλὰ οἶνος σπένδεται. nu.356.1 <Νηφάλιος θυσία> παρὰ Ἀθηναίοις ἐτελεῖτο Μνημοσύνῃ, Ἠοῖ, Ἡλίῳ, Σελήνῃ, Νύμφαις, Ἀφροδίτῃ Οὐρανίᾳ· ὥς φησι Πολέμων. καὶ ξύλα δὲ νηφάλια, τὰ μὴ ἀμπέλινα μήτε σύκινα, ἀλλὰ τὰ ἀπὸ τῶν θύμων. καὶ πρώτη ἐστιν αὕτη ὕλη πρὸς τὰς ἐμπύρους θυσίας, παρ‘ ὃ nu.356.5 καὶ τοὔνομα λαβεῖν τὸν θύμον, ὡς παρὰ τὴν θυμίασιν καὶ τὴν θυὴν πεποιημένης τῆς φωνῆς. εἰσὶ δέ τινες τοπαράπαν ἄσπονδοι θυσίαι, κατὰ τύχην εἰς ἔθος παρελθοῦσαι. Σοφοκλῆς· οὐ γὰρ ἄν ποτε πρώ- ταισιν ὑμῶν ἀντέκυρσ‘ ὁδοιπορῶν, νήφων ἀοίνοις. πρὸς τὰς Εὐμενίδας λέγων. αἳ ἄοινοι λέγονται, ὡς ἀεὶ νήφουσαι καὶ μὴ μέθην παρέχουσαι. nu.356.10 τοῦτο δὲ διὰ τὸ τῆς θείας δίκης ἄϋπνον. nu.357.1 <Νηφάλιοι θυσίαι:> ἐν αἷς οἶνος οὐ σπένδεται, ἀλλὰ ὕδωρ μελίκρατον. nu.358.1 <Νηφαλισμός:> ἡ προσοχή.

Pollux: νήφειν, νηφα- 6.26.5 λίως ἔχειν, νηφαντικὸν εἶναι· τὸ γὰρ νηφαλιεύειν τὸ νηφάλια θύειν 6.26.6 ἔλεγον, ὅπερ ἐστὶ τὸ χρῆσθαι θυσίαις ἀοίνοις, ὧν τὰς ἐναντίας θυσίας οἰνοσπόνδους ὠνόμαζον. ἔπινον δέ, ὡς οἱ νῦν, τὸ συνέπινον καὶ πο- τοὺς, ἐποιοῦντο Ξενοφῶν (Cyrop IV 5. 7) ἔφη· ‘οἱ δὲ Μῆδοι καὶ ἔπι- νον καὶ ηὐλοῦντο.’ Κρατῖνος (135) μέντοι τὸν οἶνον μάρωνα εἴρηκεν· 6.26.10 οὔ πώ πιον τοσοῦτον οὐδὲ πίομαι μάρωνα.

Scholia on Euripides: sch Or.319.1 <ἀβάκχευτον αἳ θίασον>: ἤτοι κακοβάκχευτον, τὸν κακὴν ἔχοντα βακχείαν οὐ πρέπουσαν τῷ Διονύσῳ, ἀλλ‘ ἐν θρήνοις καὶ γόοις sch Or.319.3 ἐξεταζομένην. ἢ παρόσον ἄοινα καὶ νηφάλια ταῖς θεαῖς ταύταις τὰ ἱερὰ συντελεῖται. ἢ τὸν μεγάλως ἐκβακχεύοντα: – MTAB sch Or.321.1 <μελάγχρωτες>: μέλαιναι· χθόνιαι γάρ εἰσιν. ἢ μελαί- νουσαι τοὺς νοσοῦντας. ὡς καὶ πρὸς τὸν Μενέλαον Ὀρέστης φη- σὶν [408]· ‘ἔδοξ‘ ἰδεῖν τρεῖς νυκτὶ προσφερεῖς κόρας’: – MTAB sch Or.322.1 <ταναὸν αἰθέρα>: ἀνὰ τὸν αἰθέρα πάλλεσθε πτερωταὶ οὖσαι. Ὅμηρος [Ι 571]· ‘ἠεροφοῖτις Ἐρινύς’: – MTAB <ταναὸν αἰθέρα>: τὸν λεπτομερῆ, τροπικῶς· τὰ γὰρ τεινόμενα τῶν σωμάτων λεπτύνεται. τὸ <ἀμπάλλεσθε> ὡς, ἀνακινουσῶν αὐτῶν sch Or.322.5 τὸν ἀέρα ἐμφαντικῶς, τουτέστιν· ἀναπάλλεσθε τοῖς πτεροῖς, κατὰ τὸν Ὁμηρικὸν [Ν 18] Ποσειδῶνα τὸν σείοντα τοῖς ποσὶ καὶ τῇ πορείᾳ τὸ ὄρος: – MTAB sch Or.323.1 τιμωρίαν λαμβάνουσαι ὑπὲρ αἵματος καὶ φόνου: – MiTAB sch Or.327.1 τῆς λύσσης τῆς καὶ μαίνεσθαι ποιούσης <καὶ> φοιτᾶν, ὅ ἐστι περιϊέναι: – Mi λύσσα καὶ μανία καὶ φοῖτος ἕν ἐστιν: – MiBi τὸ [φεῦ μόχθων] καθ‘ ἑαυτό. τουτέστι· δυστυχής ἐστι χάριν sch Or.327.5 τῶν μόχθων: – MiB

Scholia on Sophocles: OC.477.1 <χοὰς χέασθαι στάντα πρὸς <πρώτην> ἕω> πρὸς τὴν ἀνατολήν· καὶ γὰρ δὴ καὶ τὰς ἐκχύσεις πρὸς ἥλιον ἐποιοῦντο καθάπερ καὶ ἐν Ἠλέκτρᾳ τοιαῦτα τοῦ παρόντος, ἡνίχ‘ ἡλίῳ OC.477.5 δείκνυε τοὔναρ, ἔκλυον ἐξηγουμένου· καὶ οἱ τοὺς καθαρμοὺς δὲ ἐπιτελοῦντες πρὸς τὴν ἕω ἵστανται· Κρατῖνος ἐν Χείρωνι ἄγε δὴ πρὸς ἕω πρῶτον ἁπάντων ἵστω καὶ λάμβανε χερσὶν σχῖνον μεγάλην. OC.477.10 <πρὸς πρώτην ἕω> ἀντὶ περὶ τὸν ὄρθρον. <ἕω> ἀνατολήν. OC.478.1 τὸ ὕδωρ ἀπὸ τῶν κρατήρων χέω; OC.479.1 <τρισσάς γε πηγὰς> ἀντὶ τὸ ὕδωρ ἀπὸ τριῶν πηγῶν. <τὸν τελευταῖον> τὸν ὕστερον κρατῆρα. OC.481.1 <ὕδατος, μελίσσης> ὕδατος καὶ μέλιτος· ἀπὸ γὰρ τοῦ ποιοῦντος τὸ ποιούμενον· καὶ ἐν Ἐρασταῖς γλώσσης μελίσσης τῷ κατερρυηκότι· βούλεται δὲ λέγειν τὸ μελίκρατον. OC.481.5 <μελίσσης> μέλιτος. λείπει ὁ καί. OC.481.7 <μηδὲ προσφέρειν μέθυ> ἄοινοι γὰρ αἱ θεαί. OC.482.1 <ὅταν δὲ τούτων γῆ> ὅταν δὲ τὰς χοὰς χέω- μεν ἐπὶ γῆς τί χρή με ὕστερον δρᾶσαι; OC.483.1 <τρὶς ἐννέα> τρὶς ἐννέα τιθεὶς κλῶνας ἐλαίας ταύτας ποιοῦ τὰς εὐχάς. OC.485.1 ἡδέως ἀκούσαιμι τῶν εὐχῶν· μέγιστον γὰρ ταύτας μαθεῖν. OC.486.1 <ὥς σφας καλοῦμεν> ὡς καλοῦμεν αὐτὰς Εὐ- μενίδας οὕτως αὐτὰς καλῶν κἀξευμενῶν καὶ ἵλεως ποιούμενος ἱκέτευε αὐτὰς δέχεσθαί σε τὸν ἱκέτην ἐπὶ σωτηρίᾳ· ἀπὸ τῶν στέρνων ἀντὶ μὴ ἐξ ἐπιπολῆς ἀλλ‘ OC.486.5 ἐνδιαθέτως. OC.488.1 οἷον ἢ σὺ ταῦτα ποίει ἢ ἄλλος τις ὑπὲρ σοῦ ταῦτα ποιείτω. OC.489.1 <ἄπυστα φωνῶν> ἀνήκουστα ἀντὶ ἠρέμα καὶ συντόμως· τοῦτο ἀπὸ τῆς δρωμένης θυσίας [φησὶ] ταῖς Εὐμενίσι φησί· μετὰ γὰρ ἡσυχίας τὰ ἱερὰ δρῶσι καὶ διὰ τοῦτο οἱ ἀπὸ Ἡσύχου θύουσιν αὐταῖς καθ- OC.489.5 άπερ Πολέμων ἐν τοῖς πρὸς Ἐρατοσθένην φησὶν οὕτω, τὸ δὲ τῶν εὐπατριδῶν γένος οὐ μετέχει τῆς θυσίας ταύτης, εἶτα ἑξῆς, τῆς δὲ πομπῆς ταύτης Ἡσυχίδαι, ὃ δὴ γένος ἐστὶ περὶ τὰς σεμνὰς θεάς, [καὶ] τὴν ἡγε- μονίαν ἔχουσι καὶ προθύονται πρὸ τῆς θυσίας κριὸν OC.489.10 Ἡσύχῳ ἱερόν, ἥρω τοῦτον οὕτω καλοῦντες· διὰ γὰρ εὐφημίαν …… οὗ τὸ ἱερόν ἐστι παρὰ τὸ Κυλώ- νειον ἐκτὸς τῶν ἐννέα πυλῶν· καὶ Ἀπολλόδωρος δὲ ἐν τῇ περὶ θεῶν ιζʹ περὶ τοῦ τῶν Ἡσυχιδῶν γένους καὶ τῆς ἱερᾶς φησι· καὶ Καλλίμαχος OC.489.15 νηφάλιαι καὶ τῇσιν ἀεὶ μελιηδέας ὄμπας λῄτειραι καίειν ἔλλαχον Ἡσυχίδες.

Athenaeus: ΛΟΙΒΑΣΙΟΝ κύλιξ, ὥς φησι Κλείταρχος καὶ 11.71.2 Νίκανδρος ὁ Θυατειρηνός …. ᾧ τὸ ἔλαιον ἐπισπέν- δουσι τοῖς ἱεροῖς, σπονδεῖον δὲ ᾧ τὸν οἶνον, καλεῖσθαι λέγων καὶ λοιβίδας τὰ σπονδεῖα ὑπὸ Ἀντιμάχου τοῦ 11.71.5 Κολοφωνίου.

Epitome: 2,2.60.13 λοιβάσιον ᾧ τὸ ἔλαιον ἐπισπένδουσι τοῖς ἱεροῖς, σπονδεῖον δὲ ᾧ τὸν οἶνον. λέσβιον ποτηρίου εἶδος καὶ λουτήριον.

Schol. in Theocrit. id. 5, 53 (p. 194 Ahrens) <στασῶ> (δὲ κρατῆρα μέγαν λευκοῖο γάλακτος ταῖς νύμφαις, στασῶ δὲ καὶ ἁδέος ἄλλον ἐλαίω): πάρισον. ἔλαιον ἐκτίθησι ταῖς νύμφαις· αὗται γὰρ ἐκθρέψασαι τὸν Ἀρισταῖον ἐδίδαξαν τὴν 8.44.511.5 τοῦ ἐλαίου ἐργασίαν καὶ μέλιτος, ὥς φησιν <Ἀριστοτέλης>.

Pausanias 5.15.10: [5.15.10] Each month the Eleans sacrifice once on all the altars I have enumerated. They sacrifice in an ancient manner; for they burn on the altars incense with wheat which has been kneaded with honey, placing also on the altars twigs of olive, and using wine for a libation. Only to the Nymphs and the Mistresses are they not wont to pour wine in libation, nor do they pour it on the altar common to all the gods. The care of the sacrifices is given to a priest, holding office for one month, to soothsayers and libation-bearers, and also to a guide, a flute-player and the woodman.

Pausanias 2.11.4: melikratos for Eumenides

Eustathius on Odyssey: ἐπειδὴ καὶ νηφάλιοι θυσίαι ἦσαν ἐν αἷς οἶνος οὐκ ἐσπένδετό φασιν ἀλλ‘ ὕδωρ μελίκρα- 1.161.41 τον.

Eust. Iliad. ἄποινος θυσία ἡ νηφάλιος, καὶ ἀποβώμια ἱερά τὰ μὴ ἐπὶ βωμοῦ ἀλλ‘ ἐπὶ ἐδάφους καθαγιζόμενα

Plutarch, On Controlling Anger: ἡμέρας πρῶτον ὀλίγας ἀοργήτους οἷον ἀμεθύστους καὶ ἀοίνους διαγαγεῖν, ὥσπερ νηφάλια καὶ μελίσπονδα 464.C.5 θύοντα,

Sopater: Νόμος τὸν ἀλλοτρίῳ τάφῳ χοὰς ἐπιφέροντα τιμωρεῖσθαι· ἀπο- κήρυκτος τελευτήσαντος αὐτῷ τοῦ πατρὸς εὕρηται δακρύων ἐπὶ τοῦ μνήματος, καὶ ὑπάγεται τῷ νόμῳ. 8.124.21 Οἱ δύο καλούμενοι ὅροι, διὰ τοῦτο ταύτην ἔσχον τὴν προσηγορίαν, ὅτι ἁπλοῖ δύο συνεζευγμένοι εἰσὶ, καὶ δυ- νατὸν ἐφ‘ ἑνὶ ἑκάστῳ κατ‘ ἰδίαν κρίνεσθαι· οἷον, ἐπὶ τοῖς δακρύοις, εἰ χοαὶ τοῦτο· […] ΟΡΟΣ ΔΕΥΤΕΡΟΣ. Ἀλλ‘ οὐδὲ χοαὶ, φησὶ, τυγχάνει τὰ δάκρυα. ΛΥΣΕΙ πάλιν τῷ ἀνθορισμῷ· ὅτι πᾶν τὸ ἐπὶ τοῦ μνήματος ἐπιβαλλόμενον ὑγρὸν χοαί· σὺ δὲ ἐπέ- 8.125.30 σπεισας τῷ τάφῳ τὰ δάκρυα· σὺ ἄρα χοὰς τῷ τάφῳ ἐπέβαλες· καὶ ὅτι πᾶν τὸ ἐπὶ τῇ ὁσίᾳ καὶ τῷ τάφῳ ἐπιβαλλόμενον χοαί· σὺ δὲ ἐπ‘ αὐτοῦ δακρύων πεφώρα- σαι. ΣΥΛΛΟΓΙΣΜΩι. Ὅτι ἴσον ἐστὶ τὸ μηδεμίαν ὅλως ἔχειν πρὸς γένος συνάφειαν, καὶ τὸ γενόμενον 8.126.5 ἀποκηρυχθῆναι· καὶ ἴσον ἐστί τι χοὰς ἐπιβαλεῖν, καὶ δακρῦσαι ἐπὶ τοῦ μνήματος. ΓΝΩΜΗ ΝΟΜΟΘΕΤΟΥ· ὅτι καὶ ὁ νομοθέτης τὸν ξένον εἶπεν ἁπλῶς, οὐδὲν πε- ριεργαζόμενος ἔξωθεν, ἀλλὰ μόνον τὸν ἀλλότριον τοῦ κειμένου λέγων· καὶ ὅτι χοὰς εἶπεν οὐχ ὁρισάμενος οὐ- 8.126.10 δὲν, πότερον τὸ ἢ τὸ ἐπιβάλλεται, ἀλλ‘ ἁπλῶς εἶπε χοάς· σὺ δὲ παρὰ τὸν τάφον χοὰς ὤφθης ποιῶν, ὑπεύ- θυνος ἄρα τυγχάνεις τῷ νόμῳ. ΠΗΛΙΚΟΤΗΣ· ἦ δεινὸν τοῦτο καὶ χαλεπὸν τὸ ἀλλοτρίοις τάφοις ἐπέρ- χεσθαι, καὶ περιεργάζεσθαι τὴν ὁσίαν καὶ ἐπιδακρύειν 8.126.15 ξένοις μνήμασι. ΠΡΟΣ ΤΙ· εἰ χαλεπώτερόν ἐστιν ἀπο- κήρυκτον ὄντα, πλησίον τοῦ τάφου ἢ ἀληθῶς ξένον. ὁ μὲν γὰρ ἢ οὐδὲ τὴν ἀρχὴν προσῆλθεν ἂν, ἢ εἰ προσῆλ- θεν οὐκ ἂν ἔβαλε χοὰς κατὰ μηδὲν διαφέρων τῷ κει- μένῳ. οὗτος δὲ καὶ προσῆλθε καὶ χοὰς ἐπέβαλε τῷ κειμένῳ. 8.126.20 ΕΠΙΛΟΓΟΣ ΚΟΙΝΟΣ. Τιμωρήσασθε αὐτὸν ὡς φίλου ὄντος καὶ ἡδέος τῷ κειμένῳ· εἰ γὰρ ἔστι τις μετὰ τὸν θάνατον αἴσθησις, ἀγανακτήσειεν ἂν ὁ τεθνεὼς, ἐὰν ἀτιμώρητον ἀφῆτε τοῦ βήματος, καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα, καὶ ὅτι δίκαιον αὐτὸν καὶ συμφέρον τιμωρήσασθαι.

Plutarch, Aristides: τοῦ Μαιμακτηριῶνος μηνός, ὅς ἐστι παρὰ Βοιωτοῖς Ἀλαλκομένιος, τῇ ἕκτῃ ἐπὶ δέκα πέμπουσι πομπήν, ἧς προηγεῖται μὲν ἅμ‘ ἡμέρᾳ σαλπιγκτὴς ἐγκε- 21.3.5 λευόμενος τὸ πολεμικόν, ἕπονται δ‘ ἅμαξαι μυρρίνης με- 21.3.6 σταὶ καὶ στεφανωμάτων καὶ μέλας ταῦρος καὶ χοὰς οἴ- νου καὶ γάλακτος ἐν ἀμφορεῦσιν ἐλαίου τε καὶ μύρου 21.4.1 κρωσσοὺς νεανίσκοι κομίζοντες ἐλεύθεροι· δούλῳ γὰρ οὐδενὸς θέμις ἐστὶ τῶν περὶ τὴν διακονίαν ἐκείνην προς- άψασθαι διὰ τὸ τοὺς ἄνδρας ἀποθανεῖν ὑπὲρ ἐλευθε- ρίας· ἐπὶ πᾶσι δὲ τῶν Πλαταιέων ὁ ἄρχων, ᾧ τὸν ἄλλον 21.4.5 χρόνον οὔτε σιδήρου θιγεῖν ἔξεστιν οὔθ‘ ἑτέραν ἐσθῆτα πλὴν λευκῆς ἀναλαβεῖν, τότε χιτῶνα φοινικοῦν ἐνδεδυ- κώς, ἀράμενός θ‘ ὑδρίαν ἀπὸ τοῦ γραμματοφυλακίου ξι- φήρης ἐπὶ τοὺς τάφους προάγει διὰ μέσης τῆς πόλεως. 21.5.1 εἶτα λαβὼν ὕδωρ ἀπὸ τῆς κρήνης αὐτὸς ἀπολούει τε τὰς στήλας καὶ μύρῳ χρίει, καὶ τὸν ταῦρον εἰς τὴν πυρὰν σφάξας καὶ κατευξάμενος Διὶ καὶ Ἑρμῇ χθονίῳ, παρα- καλεῖ τοὺς ἀγαθοὺς ἄνδρας τοὺς ὑπὲρ τῆς Ἑλλάδος ἀπο- 21.6.1 θανόντας ἐπὶ τὸ δεῖπνον καὶ τὴν αἱμακουρίαν. ἔπειτα κρατῆρα κεράσας οἴνου καὶ χεάμενος ἐπιλέγει· ‘προπίνω τοῖς ἀνδράσι τοῖς ὑπὲρ τῆς ἐλευθερίας τῶν Ἑλλήνων ἀποθανοῦσι’. ταῦτα μὲν οὖν ἔτι καὶ νῦν διαφυλάττουσιν 21.6.5 οἱ Πλαταιεῖς.

Scholia on Euripides, Ph: <βώμιοι γὰρ ἐσχάραι>: ὥστε καταφυγεῖν ἐπ‘ αὐτούς, εἰ δέοι. τοῦτο δὲ οὐ συνῳδὸν τῷ [267] <ὡπλισμένος δὲ χεῖρα τῷδε φασγάνῳ>. θρασύδειλον γὰρ τὸν Πολυνείκην παρίστησι πρῴην μὲν φάσκοντα <ὡπλισμέ- sch Ph.274.5 νος δὲ χεῖρα τῷδε φασγάνῳ τὰ πίστ‘ ἐμαυτῷ τοῦ θράσους παρέξομαι>, νῦν δὲ τοὺς βωμοὺς πλησίον εἶναί φησιν οἷς προσφυγὼν νομίζει σωθῆναι καθάπερ ἱκέτης γενόμενος: – MTAB <βώμιοι γὰρ ἐσχάραι>: ἐσχάρα μὲν κυρίως ὁ ἐπὶ γῆς βόθρος ἔνθα ἐναγίζουσι τοῖς κάτω ἐρχομένοις· βωμὸς δὲ ἐν οἷς θύουσι τοῖς ἐπουρανί- sch Ph.274.10 οις θεοῖς. νῦν οὖν <βώμιοι ἐσχάραι> τὰ κοιλώματα τῶν βωμῶν. ἢ κατὰ περίφρασιν οἱ βωμοί: – MTB sch Ph.274.12 <ἄλλως>: διαφέρουσι βωμὸς καὶ ἐσχάρα. βωμὸς μὲν γάρ ἐστιν ὁ εἰς ὕψος ᾠκοδομημένος καὶ ἀνάβασιν ἔχων· ἐσχάρα δὲ ἡ ἐν τετραγώνῳ ἐπὶ γῆς βάσις βωμοῦ τάξιν ἔχουσα ἄνευ ἀναβάσεως. ἢ ἐσχάρα κυ- sch Ph.274.15 ρίως τὸ πῦρ: – B

4 Summary of the rules about liquids and receptacles