Category: Gods > Titanic Gods

1 Introduction

According to the grammarians, “thémis is justice (dikaiosýnē), and it is declined thémidos”¹ in the genitive. Photius’ Lexicon has the same definition-by-synonym, as well as a related one: “thémis is what is just (tò díkaion)”.² The latter explanation reflects a common expression, that something “is thémis” or “is not thémis” to say or do (equivalent to Latin fas and nefas):

  • “‘as is thémis’ (means) ‘as one must’, ‘as is just’, ‘as is appropriate’, ‘as one ought’.”³
  • “‘not thémis’ [means] ‘not pious’”⁴ or ‘not licit’, e.g., “it is not thémis to insult a god”;⁵ “it is not thémis for there to be a dead body in a temple.”⁶

Beyond this use as a common noun, “according to mythical discourse (tò mythikón), Themis is a goddess overseeing justice (dikaiosýnēs éphoros).”⁷ As a Latin grammarian explained, “they believed that Themis is a goddess who admonished people to pray for what is licit (fas), and they considered her to even be the licit.”⁸

This page is about Themis the goddess. Through my treatment of her, I also hope to illustrate the meaning of, and relationship between, the three theologies (mythical, physical and civic).

1: Aelius Herodianus, Partitions, p. 56 (ed. Boissonade). Homer declines thémis, thémistos instead.
2: Photius, Lexicon s.v. θέμις.
3: Hesychius, Lexicon s.v. ᾗ θέμις.
4: Scholia on Euripides’ Medea 1053.
5: Choricius of Gaza, Oration 1.2.75.
6: Scholia on Euripides’ Andromache 251.
7: Scholia on Lycophron’s Alexandra 137. The wording may only go back to John and Isaac Tzetzes, who created a new redaction of these scholia in the 12th century, but it could well be ancient, and is at any rate consistent and accurate to ancient expressions and ideas.
8: Or, more literally, “that which is (the) licit”. Festus, On the Meaning of Words s.v. Themin, as preserved in the Epitome of Paul the Deacon (a medieval writer, hence the past tense).

2 Who is Themis? Mythical and physical answers

Let us now attempt to distinguish what is only said about the goddess in mythical discourse, on the one hand, from what can be maintained philosophically (i.e., ‘physically’ or ‘naturally’, as the ancients said), on the other.

Those familiar with the poets and mythographers know Themis as one of the Titans¹ or Titanids² (‘feminine Titans’, Titanídes), the daughters of Heaven and Earth, alongside Tethys, Rhea, Mnemosyne, Phoibe, Dione and Theia.³ The grammarians call this figure “the corporeal (=anthropomorphic) goddess”⁴ to distinguish her from thémis as an incorporeal, i.e., from “the just and proper”,⁵ “the suitable, duty, […] and the laws.”⁶

However, ancient philosophers did not accept that the deities were anthropomorphic (human-shaped), with the sole exception of the Epicureans – and the Epicureans, for their part, most forcefully rejected everything else the poets said about the gods. As such, Themis’ genealogy could not be taken literally, as if the gods procreated like humans, and it was only occasionally observed that she belonged to the Titans. Usually, she is simply called a goddess.⁷

So then, how did ancient writers define or explain the goddess – beyond glossing her as Justice or overseer of justice – when they were not employing mythical discourse? Some interpretations were based on relating the name to the verb títhēmi, ‘to set down, establish’ (which is indeed cognate), as in the Stoic Cornutus: “Themis is the cause (aitía) of anything being agreed upon (syntíthesthai) between us, and safeguarded.”⁸ Here, Themis seems to be responsible for people coming together to write laws and treaties, not by coming to them in a human form, but in a subtler, imperceptible fashion. And this activity is plausibly attributed to her, since as a common noun, thémis also means “law (nómos) or justice (díkē)”.⁹

In more narrowly physical (natural-philosophical) terms, but again based on the connection to títhēmi, the goddess was explained by some as “the immutable (ametáthetos) arrangement (thésis) of the universe”,¹⁰ or “the good arrangement (euthesía) of all things, on account of their moving regularly (or ‘lawfully’, nomímōs).”¹¹ Here, ‘law’ or ‘justice’ are taken in a very abstract sense, as regularity in the cosmos.

The historian Ammianus Marcellinus also connects Themis to cosmic laws, but primarily in relation to divination, for reasons to be discussed later. He writes, in a passage on the workings of divination not uninfluenced by Stoicism: “The spirit¹² of all elements, insofar as they are eternal bodies, holds sway everywhere and always through the impulse of prescience (praesentiendi motus), and through those things which we lay hold of by various disciplines (of divining), we have a share in the gift of divination. And the substantial powers,¹³ placated by diverse rites, supply mortality with divinatory words, as if from perpetual wellsprings. It is said that the divine power (numen) of Themis is set over (praeesse) them, and because she can make (people) foreknow the decrees for the future fixed by fateful law – which the Greek language calls tethimena¹⁴ –, so, named after them, the ancient poets (theologi) placed her in the bed and throne of Jupiter, the life-giving power¹⁵ (vigor vivificus).”¹⁶

These answers do not exhaust the question of who Themis is, but they will suffice for this section. The next will address the idea raised by Ammianus in the last sentence, that poetically speaking, Themis shares the “bed and throne” of the Jupiter (=Zeus).

1: “Themis is one of the Titans” (D-Scholia on the Iliad 15.87).
2: “Themis, Justice (dikaiosýnē), who is one of the Titanids” (D-Scholia on the Iliad 20.4).
3: Listed as such by Hesiod, Theogony 135; repeated by later mythographers such as Pseudo-Apollodorus, Library 1.2.
4: Etymologicum Magnnum s.v. θέμις, tḕn sōmatikḕn theán. In Apollonius, Homeric Lexicon s.v. θέμις, elliptically and with a slightly different adjective, tês sōmatoeidoûs.
5: Etymologicum Gudianum s.v. θέμις.
6: Apollonius, Homeric Lexicon s.v. θέμις.
7: For the late Neoplatonists, the genealogies and the category of ‘Titanic gods’ became productive in a way they had not been for earlier philosophers, but they took mythical teachings of this kind in a metaphysical, not a “corporeal” sense.
8: Cornutus, Compendium of Greek Theology 31.
9: Photius, Lexicon s.v. θέμιστα.
10: Scholia on Hesiod’s Theogony 135.
11: Scholia on Hesiod’s Theogony 901. The reference is to regular cosmic motion, such as that of the stars.
12: Latin spiritus = Greek pneuma, a subtle and invisible, but nevertheless corporeal substance that pervades all things and governs them.
13: In Ammianus’ idiom, the substantial powers (substantiales potestates) are the gods.
14: ‘Things set down’, i.e., ‘fixed decrees’.
15: Zeus (=Jupiter) as the one ‘through whom we have life’ is a common philosophical idea, based on word play (the accusative form Día resembles diá, ‘through’, the alternative form Zêna is alike to zên, ‘to live’).
16: Ammianus Marcellinus, History 21.1.8

Zeus and Themis, image AI-generated using DALL·E, courtesy of @LericDax

3 The bed and throne of Zeus

The bed of Zeus is the easier part to explain: according to Hesiod, Zeus and Themis have three daughters together, namely the Horae, that is to say, Good Order (Eunomia), Justice (Dike) and Peace (Eirene).¹ But Pindar tells it more beautifully than Hesiod:

“First it was heavenly Themis of good counsel
Whom, on golden horses, from the stream of Ocean,
The Fates brought to the reverend stair
Of Olympus, by a shining road,
To be the ancient spouse of Zeus the Savior.
She bore the truthful Horae, who have gold diadems and splendid fruits.”²

Once again, the relationship between these deities was not taken to be literally genealogical by ancient interpreters, not least because the difference between Themis and Dike (or Dikaiosyne) is often elided.

The shared throne is something else. Now, we are talking less about mythological poetry, and more about statuary and worship, because Themis being páredros (‘sitting to the side’) and synoikos (‘cohabitant’) of Zeus is both an iconographc motif and a temple arrangement. Of course, it also coheres with the myth of their relationship, as well as allowing more symbolic philosophical readings.

Now, not every symbolic reading is very philosophical. The Democritean philosopher Anaxarchus of Abdera is supposed to have flattered Alexander ‘the Great’ by saying: “Zeus has Justice (Dike) at his side (páredros), as well as Themis, so that anything done by the ruler is licit (themitón) and just (díkaion).”³ Here, the gods are purely allegorical symbols, and the interpretation is offensive to any real sense of justice.

Plutarch opposed this notion by saying: “If one must depict these things, Zeus does not have Justice at his side, but he himself is Justice and Themis, and the most reverend and perfect of laws (nómoi). The ancients only say, depict and teach it this way (to indicate) that not even Zeus could rule well without justice.”⁴

Iamblichus has a unique interpretation, because he combines the iconography with a Pythagorean text which teaches that “justice (dikaiótas) […] is called thémis by the heavenly gods, díka by the chthonic, and law (nómos) by humanity”.⁵ Thus, Iamblichus holds: “Because humans understand that every place requires justice (dikaiosýnē), they invent the myth (mythopoieîn) that Themis has the same rank beside Zeus as Justice (Díkē) beside Pluton, and the law (nómos) in the cities, so that someone who acts unjustly regarding what is assigned to them will seem, at the same time, to be equally unjust towards the whole cosmos.”⁶

In these three instances, the mythical Themis and her iconography are treated as symbols for thémis, ‘justice’, in the ordinary sense; there seems to be no space left open for a physical (real) goddess as she was described in the previous section.

In other texts, however, Themis is clearly described as a deity worshipped in her own right alongside Zeus. As relating to practice, we might say that these represent civic rather than natural theology (see Theology), but they are consistent with the physical or philosophical descriptions of the goddess that were given in the previous section. They do not require belief in anything mythical.

Firstly, there are the ancient scholia on Pindar, which expound a passage from one of his Victory Odes in which he praises the city Aegina by reference to its institutions of worship: “Here, seated beside (páredros) Zeus Xenios (‘of strangers, of guests’), Themis the Savior is honored, surpassing (all) people”.⁷

The scholia explain, “He says that, among the Aeginetans, Themis is honored on account of philoxenía (‘love of foreigners, friendliness to guests’), surpassing beyond all (other) people, because he attests to them that they discern the honor (axía) due to each. For this is especially worthy (áxion) of esteem (axiṓma), to give to each of those who visit the proper honor (timḗ) appropriate to each. So it is on this account that he says the Themis (or thémis, ‘decree’) of Zeus Xenios is honored surpassingly.”⁸

This passage is almost a thesaurus of the meanings of thémis. Compare this list of synonyms from a scholiast on Plato: “thémis (means) justice (díkē), the goddess, honor (timḗ), esteem (axiṓma), what is befitting (tò harmózon), and the law (nómos).”⁹

Secondly, Euripides’ Medea contains multiple mentions of Themis. The first is put into the mouth of Medea herself, as a complaint about her husband’s betrayal of his oath of marriage:

“O great Themis and lady Artemis,
Do you see what I am suffering, despite the great oaths
With which I bound my accursed

It is obvious why the abandoned Medea is invoking Artemis (i.e., Hekate) – she is a priest to the goddess. An explanation for why she calls on Themis as well is given by the tragedy itself, when her nurse says:

“Do you hear what she says, how she calls on
Votive Themis, and Zeus who is the master
That honors the oaths of mortals?”¹¹

An even closer connection between Themis and the oath is drawn by the chorus:

“(Medea) calls on the gods, because she has suffered injustice (ádika),
On Zeus’ Themis Horkia (‘of the oath’), who brought her
To Greece”.¹²

The accusation Medea makes to Jason’s face is also illuminating:

“Gone is your faithfulness to your oaths, and I cannot ascertain
Whether you believe that the gods that were then no longer rule,
Or that new laws (thésmia) have been set down for humanity,
Because you surely know that you have not been true to your oath to me!”¹³

So, not only are oaths protected by the gods who were invoked when they were made, but the law (thémis) itself, which is to say Themis herself, demands that we keep them. In the words of the scholia, Medea “calls her Horkia as the overseer (éphoros) of oaths and ruler (prýtanis) of agreements.”¹⁴

She is explained as “Justice (dikaiosýnē), who sits beside (páredros) Zeus” – not the daughter of Zeus, as some have misinterpreted the expression “Zeus’ Themis”.¹⁵ It is also argued that “the expression ‘Zeus’ Themis Horkia’ can help (explain) the previously noted passages, insofar as she called upon Zeus through Themis because Themis belongs to Zeus.” This is in reference to the discrepancy between Medea’s invocation of Themis and Artemis and the nurse’s assertion that she had called on Themis and Zeus. This may remind us of Plutarch’s claim that Themis simply is Zeus, but unlike that, it preserves her distinctness.

1: Hesiod, Theogony 901–903. In the next few lines, he also says that the Fates (Moirai) are the children of Zeus and Themis, but almost no one except Proclus follows him in this (see section 4).
2: This fragment from Pindar is found in Clement of Alexandria, Stromata According to Hesiod, Themis is the second, not the first wife of Zeus, as here.
3: Plutarch, Life of Alexander 52.6.
4: Plutarch, To an unedicated ruler 781b.
5: From (Pseudo-)Theages the Pythagorean, On Virtue, as cited by John Stobaeus, Anthology 3.1.117. Dikaiótas and díka are Doric forms, standing for Attic dikaiótēs and díkē.
6: Iamblichus, On the Pythagoric Life 9.46.
7: Pindar, Olympian Ode 8.21–23. Almost the same words are used in Nemean Ode 11.8, but there it is less clear if Themis the goddess is meant: “And the thémis of Zeus Xenios is honored on everlasting tables”.
8: Scholia on Pindar’s Olympian Ode 8.22.
9: Scholia on Plato’s Symposium 188d.
10: Euripides, Medea 160–163.
11: Euripides, Medea 168–170.
12: Euripides, Medea 208–210.
13: Euripides, Medea 492–495.
14: Scholia on Euripides’ Medea 208. The following quotations are also from here.
15: Cf. the passage from Pindar in note 7, and also Aeschylus’ phrase, “Themis Hikesia of Zeus Klarios”, i.e., “the Themis-of-supplicants of Zeus-of-allotment” (Aeschylus, Supplicants 360). Since Themis always also means justice, it is obvious how Themis can be “of Zeus” without being his daughter.

4 “The divine is one by nature, but manifold by names”

My last sentence should not be misconstrued to mean that preserving the distinctness of Themis vis a vis other gods is an inherent value (a position sometimes called ‘radical polytheism’, although that term can mean different things). A great deal of ancient theological reflection worked by employing what we now call ‘syncretism’ or ‘identification’; in other words, ancient scholars would illuminate the nature of one deity by saying they were the same as another. We not only have abundant evidence of this method of interpretation being applied to Themis, we are also given an explicit theoretical justification for it.

In Aeschylus’ tragedy Prometheus Bound, Prometheus is called the “child of Themis of right counsel”,¹ that is, as the scholia gloss it, “of Justice (dikaiosýnē) who counsels right and just things”.² “Some say that he is the son of Iapetus and Asope or Klymene, but (Aeschylus) that he is the son of Themis”; and “he rightly said that Prometheus is related to Themis, because, since he is Prometheus (‘fore-thinking’) he fore-thinks (pronoeî) just things” (a good example of how mythical genealogy was interpreted outside of mythology).

Aeschylus’ Prometheus recounts how he was unable to convince the Titans not to war against Zeus, although “my mother, Themis and Earth (Gaia), one form of many names (pollôn onomátō morphḕ mía)”³ foretold the outcome would be disastrous for the Titans (we saw in section 2 that Themis is set over divination). The scholia explicate: “If my mother is called both Themis and Earth, it is not strange; for the gods have one shape, but they are divided into many names.”⁴ And: “The divine is one by nature, but manifold by names” (recalling Antisthenes). Or: “She is called not only called Themis […] but also Earth (Gē), and […] she has one shape, but receives many names, since she is also called ‘giver of zea’ (or ‘giver of life’, zeídōros), ‘herdswoman’ (bóteira) and ‘nourisher of men’ (bōtiáneira).”

In On Cult Statues, Porphyry gives a more nuanced explanation, where Themis is not simply the same as the Earth, but is part of the divine “power around the Earth (perígeios dýnamis). […] As Themis, she is oracular”. More fully expressed, “And because there is a certain power that has a share in divinatory power, this power was called Themis, as proclaiming what has been laid down (tetheiména) and allotted to each person.”⁵

A different track, on the same principle however, is tacken by Dion of Prusa, who opines that “Fortune is called by many names among humanity: that which is fair (is called) Nemesis, that which is unclear, Hope, that which is necessary, Fate (Moira), that which is just, Themis – like a truly many-named and many-varied goddess. To her, also, farmers have assigned the name of Demeter, shepherds of Pan, sailors of Leucothea and pilots of the Dioscuri.”⁶

Related to this is a lexical gloss, “Good Fortune (Agathe Tyche): Nemesis and Themis.”⁷

Some other identifications of note are that “Faithfulness (Fides) is called Themis”;⁸ that Virgo is “Themis or Astraea or Erigone”;⁹ and, for less obvious reasons, that she may be the Roman Anna Perenna.¹⁰

Especially interesting is the verdict of the Neoplatonic philosopher Proclus, whose name has become closely associated with ‘radical polytheism’. In his exegesis of Plato’s Republic, he explains the goddess Necessity (Anáŋkē) as follows: “Ananke presents the one divinity (theótēs) presiding over fate (heimarménē) and governing the order of the celestial beings, indicating the one (called) Themis by the mythological poets (theólogoi). And the Fates (Moirai) (represent) those who distribute the providence of their mother Themis, Clotho being allotted the fixed sphere, Atropos the erratic, and Lachesis the entire cosmos.”¹¹

Here, Proclus has in effect reduced the goddesses Necessity, Fate (Heimarmene) and Providence to Themis alone, largely because “Hesiod (Theogony 904–906) says that the Fates (Moirai) within the cosmos are born […] from Themis. Now, Plato often uses Hesiod, as is evident from the Cratylus, and here, looking to Hesiod’s Theogony, he has only changed her name, calling Themis Necessity, but saying that she is the mother of the Fates (Moirai).”¹² Heimarmene and Providence, celebrated by the Stoics and other philosophers more than by the poets whom Proclus regards as inspired, receive short thrift.¹³ This is consistent with his general approach, but not with the ‘radical polytheistic’ maximalism in whose defense Proclus is marshalled.

Proclus does add some interesting corroborating evidence for his identification, beyond Hesiod: “We must come to the opinion that Necessity is the same as Themis, not only because of the trustworthiness of the Greek theogonies, but also on the basis of the Persian initiations (teletaí) of Mithras, in which all the invocations of Themis, in the beginning, middle and end, also include Necessity, clearly saying ‘Themis and Necessity!’, and this in every case.”¹⁴

Although the explanations given in this section might seem to indicate a total inconsistency among pagan thinkers at first blush, this is far from the case. Proclus’ view, that she is “the goddess Necessity (who) we say is the cause of order in the universe”,¹⁵ coheres wonderfully with the interpretation that she is “the immutable (ametáthetos) arrangement (thésis) of the universe”, except that the former is spoken more Platonically (with reference to a transcendent cause), the latter Stoically (with the deity understood as immanent).

In either case, the order or arrangement (thésis) can be described as “cosmic laws (nómoi)”,¹⁶ bound by “unbreakable decrees (thesmoí)”.¹⁷ It is these decrees of fate, these tetheiména, which Themis pronounces to humanity insofar as she is an oracular goddess, and it law or justice in a universal sense which she is said to uphold or be. Whether she is, underneath this, really the Earth (with Aeschylus), or just a name attached to Fortune (with Dion), or a divine intellect (in the terminology of Proclus), these are not so much differences in understanding of Themis, as ways to ground that understanding in something definite.

1: Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 18.
2: Scholia on Aeschylus’ Prometheus Bound 18. The following two quotes are also from here.
3: Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound 209.
4: Scholia on Aeschylus’ Prometheus Bound 209. The following two quotes are also from here.
5: Porphyry, On Cult Statues. The next quote is from here as well, and uses the same etymology as Ammianus Marcellinus (gr. τεθειμένα tetheiména appears transcribed as tethimena in his Latin text).
6: Dion of Prusa, Oration 64.8.
7: Photius, Lexicon s.v. ἀγαθὴ τύχη.
8: Adnotationes super Lucanum (supplementum) 5.81.
9: Martianus Capella, Philologia 2.174.
10: Ovid, Fasti 3.658.
11: Proclus, On Plato’s Republic, vol. 2, p. 94.
12: Proclus, On Plato’s Republic, vol. 2, p. 208.
13: On the other hand, Proclus does acknowledge another Necessity on the authority of Orpheus just before this passage.
14: Proclus, On Plato’s Republic, vol. 2, p. 345. From this passage, it seems that Proclus had written instructions for Mithraic initiatory rites available to him.
15: Proclus, On Plato’s Republic, vol. 2, p. 208 again.
16: Proclus, On Plato’s Republic, vol. 2, p. 100.
17: Proclus, On Plato’s Republic, vol. 2, p. 208 once more.

5 Themis’ worship

Although, as with many deities, we do not have very full information about how Themis was worshipped – Pausanias’ Description of Greece mentions temples, altars and statues but few details beyond their existence –, there is quite enough to derive a clear picture of how she should be honored.

Firstly, it should be noted that Pindar calls her heavenly; that she was worshipped as Zeus’ partner, sitting beside him (páredros); that in fact she is “the Themis of Zeus” (cf. section 3, note 15), and he could be invoked “through her” (as in the Medea). All this indicates that her cult must be consonant with that of Zeus, i.e., heavenly, with offerings of wine, frankincense, and animal victims preferrably of a white or red color (cf. Apollon’s Taxonomy and Psellus, On Sacrificial Science). And indeed, the use of frankincense as her fumigation is prescribed in the Orphic Hymns. The same would hold if she is worshipped as páredros of Apollon.¹

We are also fortunate to have a list of “Themis’ ineffable symbols: oregano (or ‘marjoram’, oríganon), a lamp, a sword and a woman’s comb, that is, euphemistically and mystically spoken, women’s genitalia.”² We do not know exactly what the use of these symbols was, except that it must have been part of some mystery rite, but the selection is instructive in itself.

The sword can also be paralleled in a rhetorician, who writes “let us dedicate this sword not to Ares, nor to Terror and Fear, the children of Ares, but to Justice (Díkē) and Themis, as a dedication pure of killing.”³ But the relationship between Ares and Themis can also be seen more positively, as when Ares is called “father of much-embattled Victory, helper of Themis, tyrant over enemies, leader of the must just of people,” and asked to give “the courage to abide in the bounds of the innocuous laws (thesmoí) of peace.”⁴

Further, in the Orphic Hymns, we have a wonderful invocation of her:

“I call the holy Themis, daughter of a good father, Heaven,
Offspring of Earth, the young girl whose sight is like a budding flower,
Who first showed to mortals the holy oracle
When she prophesied (themisteúousa) to the gods in the Delphic hollow,
In the Pythian land, where Python⁵ ruled;
Who also taught king Phoebus the oracles (themistosýnai);
All-honored, splendid-shaped, reverend, night-roaming one!
For you first showed the holy rites to mortals,
Shouting to the king in Bacchiac nights,⁶
For from you are the honors of the blessed and the holy mysteries.⁷
But, blessed one, may you come, cheered with gracious will,
To the holy rites of your initiate,⁸ o girl!”⁹

The Delphic myth referred to here remains, if that is ordained, to be dealt with in the future.

1: Scholia on Pindar’s Nemean Ode 9.123.
2: Clement of Alexandria, Protrepticus 2.22.5.
3: Menander Rhetor, On Epideictic Speeches, p. 417.
4: Homeric Hymn 8.4–5;15–16.
5: Python was a monstrous serpent or ‘dragon’ who ruled over Delphi until Apollon slew him.
6: I assume the king in this line is Dionysus.
7: She is the law (thémis) regulating all worship of the gods (the blessed).
8: Mystípolos, ‘someone engaging in mysteries’, but here perhaps simply ‘worshipper’, since despite the Bacchic and initiatory references, it is not clear that this hymn itself was part of any mystery, and not meant for common use.
9: Orphic Hymn 79.

To be expanded

[More on Proclus: Procl. In Remp. 1.106f. and 2.208 again. Plat. Theol. 5.90. In Crat. 99. In Tim. 1.329, 397; 2.198, 316; 3.201]
[A section on myths: Scholia on Pindar, hypothesis Pythiôn; Diod. Sic. 5.67.3; Clement, Stromata; connection with Amaltheia; Servius; Hyginus; Scholia on Eur. Med. Or. 164; Scholia on Aesch. Eum. 3.]
[Perhaps a section on ethics: Themis dea iustissima; Aeschylus, Supplicants 359ff; Clement, Stromata; Pindar, Olympian Ode 9.15ff and 13.5ff.]
[Perhaps a section on εἰ θέμις, etc.]
[Check theoi and other resources]

Status: first draft completed (14 July 2022).