Hades Pluton (Dis)

Category: Ancient Learning > Deities

1 Many-Named Hades

Hades, “who rules over those in the earth” (Iliad 15.188), is rich in many things, including names. (This section is fairly technical; feel free to skip to its end.)

In fact, he is even rich in variants of the one name, ‘Hades’. The English word comes from the common Attic form of the name used in ancient Greek prose, Αἵδης, originally pronounced Hāidēs, but later Hādēs. Yet in poetry, the same name could take on the forms Ἀΐδης (without aspiration and in three syllables, A-ï-dēs) and Ἀΐδας (Aïdās, again trisyllabic). To add to the confusion, some grammatical forms of the words are irregular, and appear as if they came from yet another variant, Ἄϊς (Āïs; see Apollonius, Homeric Lexicon, s.v. Ἄϊδι). An expanded form of that variant, Ἀϊδωνεύς (usually in four syllables, A-ï-dō-neus), is also used, again almost exclusively in poetry; finally, there is Ἀΐδων (Aïdōn), which I have only seen in an ancient lexicon (Hesychius ζ.129), not in actual usage. In short, there is every reason to stick with the conventional anglicization, ‘Hades’, even if we admire the many refractions of the name in Greek grammar.

But alongside Hades, we must mention, if nothing else, the name which now graces the famous dwarf planet, ‘Pluto’. Bizarrely, in pop mythology discourse, and even in Latin courses, Pluto is often treated as the Roman name of Hades. This is almost the opposite of the truth, since Pluto is (a) not Latin but Greek, and (b) arguably not the god’s proper name at all, but a byname or title. To the first point, Pluto is properly Πλούτων (Ploutōn), derived from the Greek word πλοῦτος (ploutos), meaning ‘wealth’. Now, this name did at some point become borrowed into Latin, it is true, but it remained recognizably Greek, and often retained its Greek ending, Plūtōn rather than Plūtō. As one grammarian observes, “although no Latin noun ends in the letters on, and we therefore call (the islands Rhodos and Delos) Rhodum and Delum in the accusative, nevertheless there are certain nouns, says Plinius Secundus, which even among us (i.e., in Latin) properly retain the appearance and form of (the language of) their respective people, like Pluton and Xenophon” (Charisius, Art of Grammar 1, p. 151 Barwick).

As for the second point, that Pluto is not a proper name: by common ancient conception, the proper names of gods are directly translatable between Greek and Latin, if not between all languages: “First of all, there are as many names of the gods as there are human languages – for Vulcan is not (called) the same in Italia, in Africa and in Hispania in the way that you are (called) Velleius wherever you go” (Cicero, On the Nature of the Gods 1.84). Consequently, the Greek proper name, Hades, never appears in Latin-language texts – unless it is specifically quoted as a Greek word and written in Greek letters (as it is in Chalcidius, On the Timaeus 134) – but is always translated into Latin, as Dis or Orcus (see below).

This situation exactly mirrors that of the god Dionysus, whose Greek proper name likewise almost never appears in Latin, instead being translated as Liber; whereas the originally Greek byname Bacchus (gr. Βάκχος) appears in both languages, yet is mistakenly believed by many today to be his Roman name. Coincidentally, both gods’ Latin names also consistently have pater, ‘father’, added to them. Also like in the case of ‘Dionysus’ and ‘Bacchus’, the names Hades and Pluton are almost never collocated, as ‘Pallas Athena’ or ‘Phoebus Apollon’ are. However, there is one case, in the Sibylline Oracle that formed the basis of Augustus’ celebration of the Secular Games; it commands the offering of “the blood of a dark-haired bull to Aidōneus Ploutōn” (Phlegon of Tralles, On Marvels 10). It is this quote after which I named this page ‘Hades Pluton’.

In Latin, our god is usually called ‘Dis’, most commonly expanded to Dīs pater or ‘Father Dis’ (or Dīspiter – but not Diespiter, which refers to Jupiter; only late, Christian authors seem to confuse these names). The grammar of this name is somewhat irregular: some used the nominative Dītis (Servius, On the Aeneid 6.273; against this Caper, On Doubtful Words), and in some curse tablets, a vocative Dīte appears.

Two other Latin names are also attached to the same god, but more loosely. Firstly, there is ‘Orcus’, which some treat simply as a synonym of Dis. The early Latin writer Ennius, for instance, wrote “Pluto is Father Dis in Latin; others call him Orcus” (Lactantius, Divine Institutes 1.13.14). Like the Greek ‘Hades’, ‘Orcus’ also often stands for the god’s domain, the underworld itself. But ancient glossaries (Hermeneumata), for whatever reason, translate Greek Ploutōn as Dī(tis) pater, while using Orcus for Charon (gr. Kharōn). But this is not reflected in poetry, where the ferryman of the dead retains his Greek name and ending, Charōn, and the grammarian Servius strongly argues against the idea (see below).

(The theory that Orcus and Dis are in origin two different gods, with different cults, and were only identified with each other and with Hades/Pluto later, cannot be proven or disproven. To my knowledge, the etymologies of both names are uncertain, and there is little or nothing to tell us whether they were worshipped or even known to the Romans before they came under the direct and indirect influence of Greek religion.)

Finally, another Latin name assigned to our god is Vē(d)iovis’. But Festus (s.v. Vediovem) interprets him as ‘little Jupiter’. The only author who treats the god at length, Aulus Gellius, only cites the opinion that he is Apollo (Attic Nights 5.12), while himself construing that, where Diovis (Jupiter) is the ‘helper’, Vediovis is the one ‘who does not help’, i.e., a certain god who is propitiated so that he may not do harm, rather than worshipped so that he may help. All these three opinions (young Jupiter, Apollo, a god in his own right) cohere with the iconography of the god, who was depicted as youthful (as can be seen from coins), whereas Dis is depicted as a bearded man (like the adult Jupiter).

Only Martianus Capella calls the ruler over the souls of the dead “Vedius […], that is, Pluton, whom they have also called Dis and Veiovis” (Philology 2.166, further called Summanus in 2.161; cf. 2.142, “Vedius and his wife”, referring to Proserpine). It appears that Vēdius is a shortened form of Vēdiovis.

In short, our god is called Hades or Dis by proper name in Greek and Latin, respectively; by Pluton (which can be seen as a proper name or byname) in either language; and also by an alternative name in Latin, Orcus (with minimal resistance from some obscure grammarians).

The identification of Dis with Vedius/Veiovis (and Summanus, another counter-Jupiter of sorts) appears to be an innovation by the late antique systematizer Martianus Capella; it should be taken seriously as such, but not projected onto earlier authors.

2 The Meanings of Hades’ Names

[Work in Progress]

Hades (Etymologica/Zonaras; lexica?); Hades and Orcus as a place; Chalcidius aides?
Digiliblt and phi on ‚Pluto-; Greek sources. Article on Pausanias; New Pauly
Dis as dives; alternative(s) [see TLL volume]
Orcus: Apuleius. Serv. Aen. 6.273. Festus s.v. Orcum. Serv. auct. Georg. 1.277. Serv. Comm. Don. ‚horcus‘.

Quietalis dicebatur ab antiquis Orcus.

Plutarch, On the E, 394a

Scholia on Aristophanes, Plutus: sch plut.727.1 τῷ Πλούτωνι: ⟦Τὸν Πλοῦτον Πλούτωνα εἶπε παίζων· ἢ ὅτι καὶ Πλούτωνα αὐτὸν ὑποκοριστικῶς ἐκάλεσεν, ὡς Σοφοκλῆς Ἰνάχῳ Πλούτωνος δ‘ ἐπείσοδος· sch plut.727.5 καὶ πάλιν τοιόνδ‘ ἐμὸν Πλούτων‘ ἀμεμφίας χάριν. Ἄλλως.⟧ τὸν Πλοῦτον οὕτω λέγουσι· καὶ εἰκότως τὸν αὐτὸν τῷ Πλούτωνι τὸν ᾍδην νομίζουσι· καὶ γὰρ Ἡσίοδός φησιν [Op. 465] sch plut.727.10 εὔχεσθαι δὲ Διὶ χθονίῳ Δημήτερί θ‘ ἁγνῇ, ἐκτελέα βρίθειν Δημήτερος ἱερὸν ἀκτήν. παίζει τῷ Πλούτωνι εἰπών. Θ.

3 Why is Hades called Zeus?

From the Homeric poems on, the name Ζεύς (Zeus) was sometimes applied to his brothers Poseidon and Hades. Apion, an ancient Homer scholar, in fact isolated no fewer than six senses of the word. “Zeus has six meanings: the lord of all; heaven; Poseidon; Pluton; the Sun; the aether” (Apion, Homeric Glosses s.v. Ζεύς).

But, to be more precise, the Iliad does not simply call Hades ‘Zeus’, but refers to “Zeus below the earth (katakhthonios) and fearsome Persephoneia” (Iliad 9.457). The adjective katakhthonios and the pairing with Persephone leave no doubt about the fact that Hades is meant. But it does leave the question of why the king of the underworld is called by the name of the king of heaven.

Our starting point should probably be the myth of how the three brothers were assigned their respective kingdoms. …

Apion; Pausanias; Lactantius Placidus; Proclus

Lactantius Placidus VIII.312; IV.526

Serv. Aen. 1.139, Fronto Epp. 2.1.6?; Pausanias 5.14.8, Dionysius of Halicarnassus 2.10.3, Serv. 4.636

Scholia about two factions of gods from whom? Tacitus, Histories 4.83. Servius Aen. 1.139; 10.40. Seneca, Hercules Furens 47. Aeneid 4.638 + Servius ad loc. (and on 6.138). Fasti 5.448. Flaccus, Argonautica 1.730. Adnot. Lucan. 1.633.

Asclepius: Iuppiter Plutonius.

Hesychius chi.437.1 *<Χθόνιος Ζεύς>· ὁ Ἅιδης

Hesychius zeta.129.1 <Ζεὺς καταχθόνιος>· ὁ Ἀΐδων, ἤγουν ὁ Ἅιδης

Etymologicum Magnum: <Ζεύς>: Ὁ θεός. Κορνοῦτος ἐν τῷ περὶ Ἑλλη- νικῆς θεολογίας φησὶν, ὅτι ψυχή ἐστι τοῦ παντὸς κόσμου, παρὰ τὸ ζωὴ καὶ αἰτία εἶναι τοῖς ζῶσι τοῦ 408.55 ζῆν· καὶ διὰ τοῦτο βασιλεὺς λέγεται τῶν ὅλων, ὡς καὶ ἐν ἡμῖν ἡ ψυχή. Ἢ ὅτι ἔζησε μόνος τῶν τοῦ Κρόνου παίδων, καὶ οὐ κατεπόθη. Ἢ ἀπὸ τοῦ ζῆν 409.1 καὶ τοῦ ἄω· τὸ γὰρ ζωοποιόν ἐστι πνεῦμα. Ἢ παρὰ τὸ ΖΑ καὶ τὸ αὔω, τὸ βοῶ, ὁ μεγάλως αὔων. Ἢ παρὰ τὸ δέος· φοβερὸς γάρ. Ἢ παρὰ τὸ δεύω, τὸ βρέχω, δεύσω, Δεὺς καὶ Ζεύς· ὑέτιος γὰρ ὁ θεός. 409.5 Ἢ παρὰ τὴν ζέσιν· θερμότατος γὰρ ὁ ἀήρ. Ἢ 409.5 παρὰ τὸ ζέω, Ζεὺς, ὡς τρέω Τρεὺς, καὶ Ἀτρεύς. Σημαίνει δὲ τέσσαρα· τὸν θεὸν, ἢ τὸν οὐρανὸν, ὡς τὸ, 409.7 Ζεὺς δ‘ ἐπεὶ οὖν Τρῶας· σημαίνει καὶ τὸν Ποσειδῶνα, ὡς τὸ, Ζεὺς δὲ κατὰ πόντον ἐτάραξεν 409.10 σημαίνει καὶ τὸν καταχθόνιον θεὸν, ὡς τὸ, 409.10 Ζεύς τε καταχθόνιος. 409.10 Ὁ Πλούτων, Ἰλιάδος ιʹ. σημαίνει καὶ τὸν ἥλιον, 409.10 ἵκετ‘ αἰθέρα καὶ Διὸς αὐγάς. 409.10 Διός· ὁ κανών· δύο κανόνες εἰσὶν οἱ μαχόμενοι· ὁ μὲν εἷς λέγει, ὅτι πᾶν ὄνομα μονοσύλλαβον ὀξύτονον μακροκατάληκτον εἰς σ λῆγον διὰ καθαροῦ τοῦ ΟΣ κλινόμενον τὸν χρόνον τῆς εὐθείας φυλάττει καὶ ἐν τῇ γενικῇ· οἷον, δμὼς, δμωός· θὼς, θωός· καὶ 409.15 ὤφειλεν εἶναι Ζεὺς, Ζευός· ὁ δὲ ἕτερος λέγει, ὅτι τὰ εἰς <εὺς> διὰ τοῦ <έος> κλίνονται· καὶ ὤφειλεν εἶναι Ζεὺς, Ζέος. Τῶν οὖν δύο κανόνων μαχομένων, εἰσῆλθεν ἡ τῶν Βοιωτῶν διάλεκτος, καὶ ἐγένετο Ζεὺς Διός.

Scholia on Iliad 9.457.1 <Ζεύς τε καταχθόνιος.> Ὁ Πλού- των.

on Iliad 9.457b.1 ex. | Did. <Ζεύς τε καταχθόνιος καὶ ἐπαινὴ Περσεφόνεια:> πῶς ὁ μὲν εὔχεται ταῖς Ἐρινύσι, τὰς δὲ εὐχὰς αὐτῷ ἐκτελεῖ Ἅιδης καὶ Περ- σεφόνη; ὅτι αὐτοκράτορες τῶν τιμωριῶν ὄντες τὴν τοῦ κολάζειν ἐξουσίαν τοῖς ἄλλοις δαίμοσι παρέχονται. b(BCE3E4)T <ἐπαινὴ> 9.457b.5 δὲ κατὰ ἀντίφρασιν, ὡς τὸ “νῆ‘ ὀλίγην αἰνεῖν” (Hsd. opp. 643). | οἱ δὲ γράφουσι “καὶ ἐπ‘ αὐτῷ Περσεφόνεια”, οἱ δὲ ἐν πλεονασμῷ τὴν ἐπί. T

on Iliad 15.192-3.1 ex. | ex. <Ζεὺς δ‘ ἔλαχ‘ οὐρανὸν <εὐρὺν – μακρὸς Ὄλυμπος>:> πάντα τὸν ὑπὲρ γῆς ἀέρα τῷ Διΐ φησι δοθῆναι, διὰ μὲν τῶν νεφελῶν τὸν φωτιζόμενον ἀέρα, ὅπερ ἐστὶν ἀπὸ γῆς ἕως νε- φελῶν, διὰ δὲ τοῦ αἰθέρος τὸν ὑπὲρ τὰ νέφη τόπον, ὃν καὶ “οὐρανόν” 15.192-3.5 (cf. Δ 44. Ε 769 al.) ὀνομάζει. b(BCE3E4)T ἔστι δὲ οὗτος ἄχρι τῆς ζώνης τῆς σελήνης καὶ τῶν πλανητῶν. ἀμέλει καὶ πύλας οὐρανοῦ τὰ νέφη ὀνομάζει (sc. Ε 749. Θ 393), b(BE3E4)T “ἠμὲν ἀνα- κλῖναι πυκινὸν νέφος” (Ε 751. Θ 395). T πιθανῶς δὲ εἶπε κοινὴν ἁπάντων εἶναι τὴν γῆν (cf. 193)· αἱ γὰρ ἄνωθεν ἀπὸ Διὸς βολαὶ ἐπὶ 15.192-3.10 ταὐτὸν φέρονται ὑετοῦ καὶ χιόνος καὶ χαλάζης καὶ κεραυνῶν, ἥ τε τοῦ Ἅιδου μοῖρα ὑπὸ γῆν ἐστι, καὶ τὸ περιέχον τὸ ὕδωρ οὐδὲν ἄλλο ἐστὶν ἢ γῆ. b(BE3E4)T | Ζεὺς οἱ μὲν αἰθήρ, οἱ δὲ ὁ διοικῶν τὰ πάντα λόγος, οἱ δὲ τὸ ἡγεμονικὸν τοῦ κόσμου. εἴρηται δὲ παρὰ τὸ ζῶ· τοῦ γὰρ ζῆν αἴτιος. Ποσειδῶν δὲ τὸ συνέχον τὴν θάλασσαν αἴτιον καὶ ἡ 15.192-3.15 αὐτῆς θεία δύναμις, ἐπεὶ πόσεως αἴτιος· b(BCE3E4)T διηθουμέ- νης γὰρ θαλάσσης ἐκρέουσι ποταμοί, καὶ ὑετοὶ νάματα ἀπὸ θαλάσσης ἔχουσιν. καὶ Ἀττικοὶ τὸν περὶ χειμερίους τροπὰς μῆνα †ποσειδῶνα† καλοῦσιν· b(BE3E4)T Ἀνακρέων (fr. 17 P. [P.M.G. 362] = fr. 7 G.) “μεὶς μὲν δὴ †ποσειδηΐων† / ἕστηκεν, †νεφέλη δ‘ ὕδωρ / βαρὺ 15.192-3.20 δ‘ ἄγριοι / χειμῶνες κατάγουσι톔. T ὁ δὲ Ἀϊδωνεὺς παρὰ τὸ ἄω τὸ πνέω· οὐ γὰρ μόνον τὰς ψυχὰς συνέχει, αἵ εἰσι πνεῦμα, καὶ τοῖς καρποῖς δὲ αἴτιος ἀναπνοῆς καὶ αὐξήσεως, ἀφ‘ ὧν ἡμεῖς πνέομεν· διὸ 15.192-3.23 καὶ Ζεὺς καταχθόνιος, ὅτι ζῆν ποιεῖ, καὶ Πλούτων, ὅτι πλουτεῖν. οἱ δὲ παρὰ τὸ μὴ ὁρᾶσθαι ἢ ἀφανεῖς ἡμᾶς ποιεῖν. b(BE3E4)T

Scholia on Sophocles OC 1600-1606: <τώδ‘ εὐχλόου Δήμητρος> εὐχλόου Δήμητρος ἱερόν ἐστι πρὸς τῇ ἀκροπόλει· καὶ Εὔπολις Μαρικᾷ ἀλλ‘ εὐθὺ πόλεως εἶμι· θῦσαι γάρ με δεῖ κριὸν χλόῃ Δήμητρι OC.1600.5 ἔνθα δηλοῦται ὅτι καὶ κριὸς θήλεια τῇ θεῷ ταύτῃ θύεται, οὕτω δὲ τιμᾶται <ἐκ> τῆς κατὰ τῶν κήπων χλόης· θύουσί τε Θαργηλιῶνος ἕκτῃ. OC.1601.1 <ἐπιστολὰς> ἐντολάς, πράξεις. OC.1603.1 <ᾗ νομίζεται> ὡς νομίζεται ἐπὶ τοῖς νεκροῖς. OC.1606.1 <Ζεὺς χθόνιος> πάνυ σεμνῶς τὸ χθόνιος οἷον μύκημα ἐγένετο καὶ ἐσείσθη ἡ γῆ προδηλοῦντος τοῦ θεοῦ τὸν καιρὸν ἐν ᾧ ἔδει ἀποτάττεσθαι τὸν Οἰδίποδα.

Scholia on Hesiod: sch.465-469.1 * <εὔχεσθαι δὲ Διὶ χθο- νίῳ:> ταῦτα καὶ θεοσεβείας ἐστὶ δόγματα τρέποντα τοὺς ἔργων ἁπτομένους ἐπὶ τὰς παρακλήσεις τῶν τὰ ἔργα ταῦτα ἐφορώντων καὶ τελειοῦν δυναμένων θεῶν· καὶ οὐδὲν ἀπολεί- sch.465-469.5 πει πρὸς τέρψιν, εἰ ἐννοήσομεν τὸν ἀροῦν μέλλοντα λαβόμε- νον τῆς ἐχέτλης – ἣν προείπομεν (cf. sch. 427 – 430) ὅτι ποτὲ δηλοῖ τοῦ ἀρότρου μέρος – πρὶν ἐλάσῃ τοὺς βόας, μάρτυρα καλοῦντα τοῦ ἔργου τὸν Δία καὶ τὴν Δήμητρα, τὸν μὲν ὡς τελεσιουργὸν διὰ τῶν ὄμβρων τῆς σπορᾶς, τὴν δὲ ὡς προ- sch.465-469.10 στάτιν τῶν γονίμων δυνάμεων τῆς γῆς. ὁ γοῦν πάντα τὰ παρ‘ ἑαυτοῦ ποιήσας οὐχ ἁπλῶς αἰτεῖ τοὺς θεοὺς, ἀλλ‘ ὥσπερ ἀπαιτεῖ τὸ τέλος. ὡς οὖν ἔλεγε Σωκράτης (sententiam frustra quaesivi) εὔχεσθαι δεῖν μουσικὴν τὸν μανθάνοντα καὶ γονὴν παίδων τὸν γαμοῦντα, οὕτω καὶ Ἡσίοδος καρπῶν sch.465-469.15 γονὴν τὸν τῆς ἐχέτλης ἤδη λαμβανόμενον καὶ ὅρπηκα φέρον- τα καὶ ἐπάγοντα τοῖς νώτοις τῶν βοῶν ὥστε κινηθῆναι καὶ ἑλκύσαι τὸ ἄροτρον. τοῦτο μὲν οὖν δῆλον. τὸν δὲ ἱμάντα τὸν ζυγῷ περιβαλλόμενον <μεσάβουν> ὀνομά- ζων, ὃν περιάπτουσι κερκίδι εἰς τὸ μέσον ἐνθέντες τοῦ sch.465-469.20 ζυγοῦ, ἣν ἔνδρυον καλοῦσιν, εἰκότως εἶπεν, ὅτι διὰ τοῦ ὅρπηκος, ὃν ἐπὶ τὰ νῶτα φέρει τῶν βοῶν, κινεῖ αὐτοὺς τὸ ἔνδρυον ἕλκοντας τῷ <μεσάβῳ·> συντεινόμενος γὰρ οὗ- τος ὁ ἱμὰς περὶ τὸ ἔνδρυον ἐφέλκεται τὸ ἄροτρον. εἰ δὲ γράφοιτο μετὰ τοῦ <ν> <μεσάβων,> λέγοι ἂν αὐτὸ τὸ ἔνδρυον μεσάβων, διότι μέσον ἐστὶ τῶν βοῶν τῷ ζυγῷ ἐμπεπηγός. sch.465a.1 <εὔχεσθαι δὲ Διί:> εὔχου ἐπιλαμ- βανόμενος εὐθέως τὸν ὅρπηκα τῇ χειρὶ καὶ ἐπὶ τῶν ὤμων ἐκτείνων τῶν βοῶν ὡς ἂν πρόθυμος γένηται τῶν βοῶν ἡ ὁρμὴ ἑλκόντων τὸ ἔνδρυον.

ibid. sch.473-474.1 * <ὧδέ κεν ἁδροσύνῃ:> εἰ καὶ τὰ παρ‘ ἡμῶν γίγνοιτο πάντα καὶ εὐξαμένοις ἐπακολουθήσειε καὶ τὰ παρὰ τοῦ Διός, οἱ στάχυες ἁδροὶ γενήσονται· τοι- οῦτοι δὲ γενόμενοι νεύσουσιν ἔραζε ὡς εἰώθασιν πλήρεις sch.473-474.5 ὄντες καὶ ἐμβριθεῖς. τὸ γὰρ πλῆρες βαρῦνον τὸν στάχυν νεύειν ποιεῖ, ὁ δὲ ἀσθηνὴς ὀρθὸς μένει διὰ κουφότητα. δεῖ δὲ ἐφιστάνειν ὃν ἐκάλεσε (v. 465) Δία Χθόνιον – Ὀλύμ- sch.473-474.8 πιον πάλιν εἶπεν – ἐνδεικνύμενος ὅτι πανταχοῦ ὁ Ζεύς, ἀλλ‘ ἄνω μὲν Ὀλύμπιος, κάτω δὲ Χθόνιος· καὶ ἐπειδὴ τε- sch.473-474.10 λειοῖ τοὺς ἐν τῇ γῇ καρποὺς καὶ τὰς τοῦ οὐρανοῦ κινήσεις ὄμβρους πέμπων, ἅμα καὶ Ὀλύμπιον αὐτὸν ὑμνητέον καὶ Χθόνιον, διὰ μὲν τὸ ἀφ‘ οὗ ἡ τελείωσις Ὀλύμπιον, διὰ δὲ τὸ ἐν ᾧ Χθόνιον. sch.473a.1 <<ὧδέ κεν ἀδροσύνῃ:>> οὕτως, φη- σί, ποιοῦντός σου τῇ ἁδροσύνῃ τῶν γεννημάτων, ἤγουν τῷ βάρει ἢ τῇ μεστότητι, ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν οἱ στάχυες νεύσουσιν, εἰ συνευδοκήσει τῇ σπουδῇ σου καὶ ὁ λεχθεὶς Χθόνιος sch.473a.5 Ζεύς, ἤτοι ὁ Πλούτων.

Proclus On Cratylus: 148.1 Ὅτι ὁ μὲν Κρόνος τῆς Τιτανικῆς διακοσμή- σεως τῶν θεῶν ἐστι μονάς, ὁ δὲ Ζεὺς τῆς δημιουργικῆς. διττὸς δ‘ οὗτος, ὁ μὲν ἐξῃρημένος καὶ τῷ Κρόνῳ συνταττό- μενος, πηγαῖος ὢν καὶ ὅλως εἰς τὴν τριάδα τῶν νοερῶν πα- 148.5 τέρων τελῶν καὶ τὸ πέρας αὐτῶν συνελίσσων· ὁ δὲ τοῖς Κρο- νίδαις συναριθμούμενος καὶ τὴν Κρονικὴν ἀκρότητα καὶ τὴν ἀρχὴν ἐν τῇ τριάδι ταύτῃ κληρωσάμενος, περὶ οὗ λέγει καὶ ὁ Ὁμηρικὸς Ποσειδῶν (O 187). <τρεῖς γάρ τ‘ ἐκ Κρόνου εἰμὲν ἀδελφεοί>· 148.10 καὶ ὁ μὲν πρῶτος Ζεύς, ἅτε ὅλων ὢν δημιουργός, πρώτων τε καὶ μέσων καὶ τελευταίων βασιλεύς ἐστιν· περὶ οὗ καὶ ὁ Σω- κράτης ἔναγχος (p 396ab) ἔλεγεν ὅτι ἐστὶν ἄρχων τε καὶ βα- σιλεὺς τῶν πάντων, καὶ ὅτι πᾶσιν ἡ ζωὴ δι‘ αὐτοῦ ἐστιν καὶ ἡ σωτηρία· τὸ γὰρ πᾶσιν προκείμενον τὸν πρὸ τῶν τριῶν 148.15 δηλοῖ Δία. ὁ δὲ ἀρχικὸς Ζεὺς καὶ σύστοιχος τῶν τριῶν Κρο- νιδῶν τὴν τρίτην ἐπιτροπεύει μοῖραν τῶν ὅλων κατὰ τὸ <τριχθὰ δὲ πάντα δέδασται> (Hom. O 189), καὶ ἔστιν ἀκρό- τατος τῶν τριῶν καὶ ὁμώνυμος τῷ πηγαίῳ καὶ ἡνωμένος αὐτῷ καὶ καλεῖται μοναδικῶς Ζεύς· ὁ δὲ δεύτερος δυαδικῶς 148.20 καλεῖται Ζεὺς ἐνάλιος καὶ Ποσειδῶν. ὁ δὲ τρίτος τριαδικῶς 148.21 Ζεύς τε καταχθόνιος καὶ Πλούτων καὶ Ἅιδης. καὶ ὁ μὲν πρῶτος τὰ ἀκρότατα σῴζει καὶ δημιουργεῖ καὶ ζωοποιεῖ, ὁ δὲ δεύτερος τὰ δεύτερα, ὁ δὲ τρίτος τὰ τρίτα· διὸ καὶ ἁρπάζειν λέγεται τὴν Κόρην οὗτος, ἵνα μετ‘ αὐτῆς τὰ πέρατα ψυχώσῃ 148.25 τῶν ὅλων.

Elias On Isagoge: <Ἀλλ‘ ἐπὶ μὲν τῶν γενεαλογιῶν εἰς ἕνα ἀναφέρουσι, φέρε εἰπεῖν τὸν Δία, <τὴν ἀρχὴν> ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πλεῖστον.> 69.21 Καλῶς εἶπεν <ὡς ἐπὶ τὸ πλεῖστον>· ἰδοὺ γὰρ Ἁλιρρόθιος ὑπὸ Ποσει- δῶνα τελῶν κατὰ τοὺς τῶν ποιητῶν ληρώδεις μύθους οὐκ ἀνάγεται ὑπὸ τὸν Δία διὰ τὸ τριχθὰ δὲ πάντα δέδασται. 69.25 διὸ καὶ ἀποροῦσιν ὅτι εἰ τριχθὰ πάντα δέδασται, πῶς ὁ Ζεὺς πατὴρ 69.26 ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε ὑπ‘ ἐκείνων εἴρηται. καὶ λέγομεν ὅτι διττὸς ὁ Ζεὺς παρὰ τοῖς ποιηταῖς, ὁ μὲν εἷς τῶν τριῶν, ὡς ὅταν λέγωσιν ἐνάλιος Ζεύς, χθόνιος Ζεύς, αἰθέριος Ζεύς, ὁ δὲ πρὸ τῶν τριῶν, ὡς ὅταν λέγηται πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε.

Pausanias: … Αἰγύπτου παίδων καὶ ταύτῃ μνῆμα. χωρὶς μὲν γὰρ ἀπὸ τῶν σωμάτων ἐνταῦθα αἱ κεφαλαί, χωρὶς δὲ ἐν Λέρνῃ σώματα τὰ λοιπά· ἐν Λέρνῃ γὰρ καὶ ὁ φόνος ἐξειργάσθη τῶν νεανίσκων, ἀποθανόντων δὲ ἀποτέ- μνουσιν αἱ γυναῖκες τὰς κεφαλὰς ἀπόδειξιν πρὸς τὸν πατέρα ὧν ἐτόλμησαν. ἐπ‘ ἄκρᾳ δέ ἐστι τῇ Λαρίσῃ Διὸς ἐπίκλησιν Λαρισαίου ναός, οὐκ ἔχων ὄροφον· τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα ξύλου πεποιημένον οὐκέτι ἑστηκὸς ἦν ἐπὶ τῷ βάθρῳ. καὶ Ἀθηνᾶς δὲ ναός ἐστι θέας ἄξιος· ἐνταῦθα ἀναθήματα κεῖται καὶ ἄλλα καὶ Ζεὺς ξόανον, δύο μὲν ᾗ πεφύκαμεν ἔχον ὀφθαλμούς, τρίτον δὲ ἐπὶ τοῦ μετώπου. τοῦτον τὸν Δία Πριάμῳ φασὶν εἶναι τῷ Λαομέδοντος πατρῷον ἐν ὑπαίθρῳ τῆς αὐλῆς ἱδρυ- μένον, καὶ ὅτε ἡλίσκετο ὑπὸ Ἑλλήνων Ἴλιον, ἐπὶ τού- του κατέφυγεν ὁ Πρίαμος τὸν βωμόν. ἐπεὶ δὲ τὰ λάφυρα ἐνέμοντο, λαμβάνει Σθένελος ὁ Καπανέως αὐτόν, καὶ ἀνάκειται μὲν διὰ τοῦτο ἐνταῦθα· τρεῖς δὲ ὀφθαλμοὺς ἔχειν ἐπὶ τῷδε ἄν τις τεκμαίροιτο αὐτόν. Δία γὰρ ἐν οὐρανῷ βασιλεύειν, οὗτος μὲν λόγος κοι- νὸς πάντων ἐστὶν ἀνθρώπων. ὃν δὲ ἄρχειν φασὶν ὑπὸ γῆς, ἔστιν ἔπος τῶν Ὁμήρου Δία ὀνομάζον καὶ τοῦτον· Ζεύς τε καταχθόνιος καὶ ἐπαινὴ Περσεφόνεια. Αἰσχύλος δὲ ὁ Εὐφορίωνος καλεῖ Δία καὶ τὸν ἐν θα- λάσσῃ. τρισὶν οὖν ὁρῶντα ἐποίησεν ὀφθαλμοῖς ὅστις δὴ ἦν ὁ ποιήσας, ἅτε ἐν ταῖς τρισὶ ταῖς λεγομέναις λήξεσιν ἄρχοντα τὸν αὐτὸν τοῦτον θεόν.

(?) Typhon in Scholia on Aeschylus, Th.: Th.521-525a.1 <πέποιθα τὸν Διὸς ἀντίτυπον ἔχοντα>· ὁ χορός φησιν ὅτι· θαρρῶ ἔμπροσθεν τῶν πυλῶν ῥῖψαι τὴν ἑαυτοῦ κεφαλὴν τοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς ἀσπίδος ἔχοντος εἰκονισμένον τὸν Τυφῶνα τὸν τοῦ Διὸς ἐχθρόν. καὶ ὁ μὲν νοῦς τοιοῦτος, ἡ δὲ σύνταξις οὕτως· πέποιθα καὶ θαρρῶ τὸν ἐν τῷ Th.521-525a.5 σάκει καὶ τῇ ἀσπίδι ἔχοντα καὶ βαστάζοντα τὸ δέμας καὶ τὸ σῶμα τὸ ἀντίτυπον καὶ ἐναντίον καὶ ἐχθρὸν τοῦ Διός, ἤτοι περιφραστικῶς αὐτὸν τὸν Τυφῶνα, τὸν ἄφιλον καὶ τὸν μισητὸν ἀνθρώποις τε καὶ ἀθανάτοις θεοῖς, ἰάψειν καὶ πέμψειν πρόσθεν πυλᾶν, ἀντὶ τοῦ ἔμπροσθεν τῶν πυλῶν, τὴν ἑαυτοῦ κεφαλὴν δαίμοσιν ἐχθρῶν εἴκασμα, εἰς ἴνδαλμα καὶ εἰς τύπον καὶ Th.521-525a.10 εἰκόνα τῶν ἐχθρῶν τοῖς θεοῖς, τουτέστιν εἰς σημεῖον καὶ παράδειγμα τῶν ὧν πάσχουσιν οἱ τῶν θεῶν ἐχθροί. ABCDHNcNdP2PdSjVWXaXc YYa Th.521-525b.1 θαρρῶ τὸν ἐχθρὸν τὸν ἔχοντα τὸ δέμας τοῦ χθονίου ἐν τῷ σάκει, τὸν ἀντίτυπον τοῦ Διός, τὸν ἄφιλον τοῖς δαίμοσιν, ἰάψειν καὶ ἐμβα- λεῖν τὴν κεφαλὴν πρόσθε τῶν πυλῶν ὁμοίωμα τοῖς βροτοῖς καὶ τοῖς πολυ- ξένοις θεοῖς. X Th.521-525c.1 ἀντισπαστικὰ κῶλα εʹ ἰσόμετρα τοῖς πρὸ αὐτῶν· ἔοικε δὲ εἶναι ταῦτα ἀντιστροφή. Fpc Th.521-525d.1 ἀντιστροφὴ κώλων εʹ. T Th.521-525e.1 ἡμέτερον· + <πέποιθα δή>· ἡ ἀντιστροφὴ αὕτη τῆς ἄνω ἐστὶ στροφῆς ἧς ἡ ἀρχὴ (481) <ἐπεύχομαι δή>, καὶ αὕτη γὰρ κώλων ἐστὶν ἰσομέτρων εʹ· τὸ μέντοι πρῶτον κῶλον τὸν δεύτερον ἔχει πόδα χορ- ίαμβον, τὸν δὲ τρίτον ἀνάπαιστον διὰ τὴν ἀδιάφορον. ἐπὶ τῷ τέλει μόνη Th.521-525e.5 παράγραφος. T Th.521-522a.1 πιστεύω ἀπολεῖσθαι τὸν ἔχοντα ἐν τῷ σάκει τὸν ἐχθρὸν τοῦ Διὸς δαίμονα. M Th.521-522b.1 πέποιθα ἀπολεῖσθαι τὸν ἔχοντα ἐν τῷ σάκει δέμας τοῦ χθονίου Τυφῶνος, ἤγουν τοῦ ὑπὸ γῆν ὄντος τεταρταρωμένου διὰ τὸ ἐπ- αναστῆναι τῷ Διί. I1 Th.521a.1 πέποιθα] θαρρῶ. AAbBCHPSjTVYaYb Th.521b.1 πέποιθα] βεβαίωσιν καὶ θάρρος ἔχω. Ξa Th.521c.1 τὸν] Ἱππομέδοντα. NaPθΞa Th.521d.1 ἢ ἀντίτυπτον τοῦ χθονίου Διός, ἤτοι τοῦ Πλούτωνος, ὡς ἐὰν ἔλεγε τὸν Τυφῶ τὸν στυγούμενον πᾶσιν ἐπίσης τῷ Ἅιδῃ, τῆς <ἀντὶ> λαμβανο- μένης ἐπὶ ἰσότητος. I1 Th.521e.1 ἀντίτυπον] τὸν ἐχθρόν, ἤγουν τὸν Τυφῶνα. DHYaYb Th.521f.1 ἀντίτυπον] τὸν ἐχθρόν. ABPdV Th.521g.1 ἀντίτυπον] ἐναντίον. CHM2 Th.521h.1 ἀντίτυπον] τὸν ἀντίπαλον. θ Th.521i.1 ἡμέτερον· + οὐ χρὴ γράφειν ἐνταῦθα <ἀντίτυπον ἔχοντα>· πε- ρισσὸν γὰρ ὂν τὸ <ἔχοντα> πρὸς τὸ τῆς στροφῆς κῶλον ἐξεβλήθη παρ‘ ἐμοῦ. χρὴ δὲ συντάσσειν ἅπαν τοῦτο οὕτω πως· πέποιθα δὴ καὶ θαρρῶ ἰάψειν καὶ ῥίψειν τὴν ἑαυτοῦ κεφαλὴν ἔμπροσθεν τῶν πυλῶν τὸν ἐν τῷ σάκει καὶ Th.521i.5 τῇ ἀσπίδι ὄντα γεγραμμένον ἀντίτυπον τοῦ Διός, ἤτοι τὸν Τυφῶνα, τὸ ἄφιλον λέγω δέμας τοῦ χθονίου, τὸ ἐχθρὸν τοῖς θεοῖς, τὸ εἴκασμα καὶ ὁμοίωμα ὂν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις καὶ τοῖς μακροβίοις θεοῖς. πεσόντος γὰρ τοῦ αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τῆς ἀσπίδος φέροντος καὶ αὐτὸς συγκαταβληθήσεται. T Th.521j.1 ἀντίτυπον] + ἤγουν τὸν Τυφῶνα τὸν ἀντίπαλον Διός. T Th.521k.1 ἔχοντα] βαστάζοντα. BCHP

4 Is Hades the same as Sarapis/Osiris?

Sarapis/Serapis represents a real problem to those who understand ancient polytheism as a matter of separate religions (Egyptian, Greek, Roman).

In Latin literature, Serapis is consistently understood as Egyptian, but as with all Egyptian gods whose names entered the Latin language, it was the Greek form of the name that was borrowed. So, as with Isis, the Greek-Latin glossaries (Hermeneumata) simply give the same name in different scripts: “Σέραπις : Serapis”. It is also telling that his name is included in the glossaries at all, since no Egyptian gods other than he and Isis were; the inclusion reflects their importance to Greco-Roman culture at large.

To name just a few indicators of his importance, firstly, one of Rome’s fourteen regiones or districts was called “Isis and Serapis” after a temple of the two (see Curiosum Urbis Romae and De regionibus Urbis Romae). Secondly, in the so-called menologia rustica, inscriptions that summarize the Roman calendar, the Pharia in honor of Isis (date unknown) and the Sarapia (25th) are the only festivals mentioned for the month of April. They could stand for this Roman month as the Saturnalia could for December. (And a second Isiac festival is listed for November!) Thirdly, in his Description of Greece, Pausanias mentions a dozen temples dedicated to Sarapis (often with Isis). By contrast, he mentions only one temple and two altars for Hephaestus, who was perhaps the least prominent of the Twelve Gods (as they are listed by Sallustius).

Actually: begin with Artemidorus.

and one of Rome

Hermeneumata; regio III isis et serapis; Plutarch; Cicero. Very little evidence of conflation in Latin. Why? Tacitus though! Also Commenta Bernensia I think? Hephaestion Osiris =/= Sarapis

Sarapis: Plutarch, Strabo (also O.), Celsus (both), Eusebius/Porphyry (both), Cyrillus (also O.), Diodorus Siculus, Aelius Aristides, Julian, Eusebius, Porphyry, Damascius?, Cyril against Julian,

Osiris: Plutarch, De fluviis;

PGM; inscriptions

Also separate page Ser/Sarapis: Iulius Valerius; Macrobius; Tacitus; Aristides; Marius Victorinus; Historia Augusta; Apuleius; Varro; etc.

Pausanias, Sextus Empiricus, Aelian, Artemidorus (Hades related?), Clement of Alexandria, Historia Alexandri Magni, Maiistas, Socrates Scholasticus?, Libanius, Psellus, Cedrenus, Anthologia Graeca, Suda

Ausonius: ΑΥΣΟΝΙΟΥ. Λυαίῳ πατρί. 153.1
Αἰγύπτου μὲν Ὄσιρις ἐγώ, Μυσῶν δὲ Φανάκης,
Βάκχος ἐνὶ ζωοῖσιν, ἐνὶ φθιμένοις Ἀϊδωνεύς,
πυρογενής, δίκερως, Τιτανολέτης, Διόνυσσος.

ΑΛΛΟ. 49.1
Οὐρανίων πάντων βασιλεῦ, χαῖρ‘, ἄφθιτ‘ Ἄνουβι,
σός τε πατὴρ χρυσοστέφανος πολύσεμνος Ὄσιρις,
αὐτὸς ζεὺς Κρονίδης, αὐτὸς μέγας ὄβριμος Ἄμμων,
κοίρανος ἀθανάτων, προτετίμηται δὲ Σάραπις,
σὴ δὲ μάκαιρα θεὰ μήτηρ, πολυώνυμος Ἶσις,
ἣν τέκεν Οὐρανὸς εὐφρονίδης ἐνὶ κύμασι πόντου
μαρμαρέοις, θρέψεν δ‘ Ἔρεβος φῶς πᾶσι βροτοῖσι,
πρεσβίστην μακάρων ἐν Ὀλύμπῳ σκῆπτρον ἔχουσαν,
καὶ γαίης πάσης καὶ πόντου δῖαν ἄνασσαν
πανδερκῆ· μεγάλων [ἀγα]θῶν [σκ]άπτειρα βροτοῖσι …..

Osiris (separately): Servius, Comm. Bern.?, Lact. Plac., Macrobius, Martianus, Asclepius, Grillius, Iulius Valerius; Ovid, Apuleius, Tibullus, Juvenal, Statius.

Diogenes Laertius, Diodorus Siculus, Herodotus, Aelius Herodianus (lol), Cassius Dio, Pausanias only once, Aelian, Poem on Herbs, Orphic Argonatucia, Aristophanes gramm., Dioscorides, Manetho, Synesius, Iamblichus, Hermetica/Stobaeus?, Nonnus, ‚Hippolytus‘, Achilles Tatius Isagoge, Lydus/Chronicon/Malalas/Cedrenus, Syncellus, Pseudo-Nonnus, Stephanus, Procopius, Proclus, Photius/Damascius, Etymologica, PGM, on Aelius Aristides, on Hesiod,

Februus(?)/Phebros; Soranus and Mantum (Servius); Taranis?; Caesar on Dis …

Fronto: Hadrianum autem ego, quod bona venia pietatis tuae dictum sit, ut Martem Gradivom, ut Ditem patrem, propitium et placatum magis volui quam amavi. Quare? Quia ad amandum fiducia aliqua opus est et familiaritate: quia fiducia mihi defuit, eo quem tantopere venerabar non sum ausus diligere. Antoninum vero ut solem, ut diem, ut vitam, ut spiritum amo diligo, amari me ab eo sentio.

rituals: OH, Phlegon, Odyssey, etc.