Gods in Apion’s Homeric Glosses

1 Introduction

“”Über die homerischen Glossen Apions””, Ed. Ludwich, A.; Philologus 74 (1917) 209–247; 75 (1919) 95–103.


2 Translated Excerpts (in Greek alphabetic order)

Ares (has) 7 (meanings): the deity (ho daímōn); battle (pólemos); iron; lust for battle; wound; warlike (polemikón) state in the soul; death.

(Homer uses it) referring to the deity: “o Ares, Ares, destroyer of mortals!” (Iliad 5.31).

Referring to battle:

Referring to iron:

Referring to lust for battle:


And referring to death:

“θεράποντες Ἄρηος” (Β 110). ἐπὶ τοῦ σιδήρου· “ἔνθα μάλιστ‘ ἀφίει μένος ὄβριμος Ἄρης” (Π 613). ἡ εἰς τὸν πόλεμον ὁρμή· “δῦ δέ μιν Ἄρης [δεινὸς Ἐνυάλιος], πλῆσθεν δ‘ ἄρα οἱ φρένες ἐντός” (Ρ 210). τὸ τραῦμα· “ἔνθα μάλιστα γίνετ‘ Ἄρης ἀλε- 74.224.5 γεινός” (Ν 568) … καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν θάνατον· “γνωστὸν ἐνὶ μεγά- ροισιν Ἄρεως ἀλκτῆρα γενέσθαι” (Ξ 485).

Atē, 2: the deity (hē daímōn): “”

And harm: “”

τὴν δαίμονα· “ἡ δ‘ Ἄτη σθεναρή τε καὶ ἀρτίπος” (Ι 505). καὶ τὴν βλάβην· “Ζεύς με μέγα Κρονίδης ἄτῃ 74.225.10 ἐνέδησε βαρείῃ” (Β 111).

Aphrodite, 2: the deity; and sexual intercourse.

daímōn: god; Fortune; Fate; death; and maleficent.

Eris, 2: love of strife; also a certain deity.

Zeus, 6: the lord of all [i.e., Zeus himself]; heaven; Poseidon; Pluton; Helios [Iliad 13.837?]; and the aether.

Hēbē: prime youth; and a proper name.

Hephaestus: the deity; and fire.

Ēōs means the deity; the twilight from sunrise to midday; the region of sunrise; the time just before daybreak (orthros); the southern region of the cosmos; day; and daylight.

Thaleia: the name of a Nereid; joy (euphrosýnē); and daintiness (tryphḗ).

Themis: the deity; and justice (dikaiosýnē).

Iris: the deity; and the (rainbow) in the clouds.

kêr with circumflex: soul; and kḗr with acute accent: death-bringing fate (thanatēphóros moîra).

Kourêtes: a people [Iliad 9.529].

Moira, 4: Fate; duty; portion; and the deity.

némesis: reproach, or fear [Iliad 3.156].

nýmphē (‘nymph’): a woman just being married [i.e., ‘bride’]; young woman; Naid [‘freshwater nymph’]; and goddess.

Oneiros, 2: the god; and the vision (occurring) through him.

And (Homer means) the god (in the line):

But the vision through him:

μὲν τὸν θεόν· “βάσκ‘ ἴθι, οὖλε Ὄνει[ρε” Β 8. ὅταν δὲ τ]ὸ δι‘ αὐτοῦ θέαμα· “ὥς οἱ ἐναρ[γὲς ὄνειρον ἐπ]έσσυτο” (δ 841).

Hypnos: the corporeal (sōmatoeidḗs) god; the (bodily) function (enérgeia); and metaphorically, death.

Phobos: the ordinary meaning [i.e., ‘fear’]; flight; and the son of Ares.